Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (131):
A suicide attempt that doesn't result in death.
A self-inflicted death in which the person acts intentionally, directly, and consciously to end one's life.
A person who clearly intends to end his or her life at the time of a suicide attempt.
A person who attempts suicide believing that the process of death is already underway and that he/she is simply hastening the process.
A person who attempts suicide without recognizing the finality of death.
A person who is ambivalent about the wish to die even as he/she attempts suicide. Ex. a person playing russian roulette.
A death in which the victim plays an indirect, hidden, partial, or unconscious role. Ex. drug/alcohol/tobacco use, recurrent physical fighting, etc.
A psychological autopsy in which clinicians piece together information about a person's suicide from the person's past.
Common Triggering Factors for Suicide
Stressful events, mood and thought changes, alcohol and other drug use, mental disorders, and modeling. Also, social isolation, serious illness, an abusive environment, and occupational stress.
A pessimistic belief that one's present circumstances, problems, mood won't change.
A feeling of psychological pain that seems intolerable to a person. Key to suicide.
Viewing problems and solutions in rigid "either/or" terms.
"Only" is the 4-letter word in suicide.
Social Contagion Effect
Increases in the risk of suicide among the relatives and friends of people who recently committed suicide.
Psychodynamic Perspective for Suicide
They believe that suicide results from depression and anger at others that is redirected toward oneself. Death instinct (thanatus) directed to themselves in suicide patients.
Sociocultural Perspective for Suicide
According to Durkheim, the probability of suicide is determined by how attached a person is to such social groups as the family, religious institutions, and community. The more thorough a person belongs, the lower the risk of suicide.
Committed by people over whom society has little or no control. In people who are isolated, non-religious, and alienated.
Committed by people who are so well integrated into the social structure that they intentionally sacrifice their lives for its well-being. Ex. kamikazes.
Committed by people whose social environment fails to provide stable structures, such as family as religion, to support and give meaning to life. By people who have been let down by a disorganized, inadequate, often decaying society. Can also be caused by major life changes in a person's immediate surroundings.
"Without law," this societal condition leaves people without a sense of belonging.
Biological Perspective for Suicide
They rely on family pedigree studies to support their position that biological factors contribute to suicidal behavior. Low serotonin activity levels found in people who commit suicide. Some studies found that they had fewer receptor sites on neurons that normally receive serotonin than people who don't commit suicide. Also, abnormalities in the PFC, orbitofrontal cortex, and cingulate cortex (all have serotonin-using neurons). Biological theorists believe that heightened feelings of aggression and impulsivity, produced by low serotonin activity are key factors in suicide.
Treatments for Suicidal People
Medical care after an attempt, psychotherapy, and/or drug therapy. CBT maybe particularly helpful for suicidal people bc it focuses on the painful thoughts, sense of hopelessness, dichotomous thinking, poor coping skills, weak problem-solving abilities, etc. Mindfulness-based CT, too, bc the therapists guides the client to be aware of his negative thoughts and feelings and accept them rather than eliminate it.
Suicide Prevention Program
A program that tries to identify people who are at risk of killing themselves and to offer them crisis intervention.
A treatment approach that tries to help people in a psychological crisis to view their situation more accurately, make better decisions, act more constructively, and overcome the crisis.
Treating Suicidal People in Therapy
Establish a positive relationship, understand and clarify the problem, assess suicide potential, assess and mobilize the caller's resources, and formulate a plan.
Therapy Goals for Suicidal People
Keep the patient alive, reduce psychological pain, help achieve a nonsuicidal state of mind, help gain a sense of hope, guide better stress management.
Factitious Disorder / Munchausen Syndrome
A disorder in which a person feigns or induces physical symptoms, typically for the purpose of assuming the role of a sick person. Maybe caused by factors such as depression, unsupportive parental relationships during childhood, extreme need for social support.
Intentionally feigning illness to achieve some external gain, such as financial compensation or deferment from military service.
Factitious Disorder Imposed on Another / Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy
Parents or caretakers make up or produce physical illnesses in their children, leading in some cases to repeated painful diagnostic tests, medication, and surgery. Use various techniques to induce symptoms in a child (ex. giving a child drugs). Caretaker craves attention and praise she receives from the sick child.
A disorder in which a person's bodily symptoms affect his or her voluntary motor and sensory functions, but the symptoms are inconsistent with known medical diseases. They have neurological-like symptoms (ex. paralysis, blindness) with no neurological basis. Appears suddenly at times of extreme stress.
Somatic Symptom Disorder
A disorder in which people become excessively distressed, concerned, and anxious about bodily symptoms that they are experiencing, and their lives are greatly and disproportionately disrupted by the symptoms. Great disruption of life. Longer lasting but less dramatic symptoms than conversion disorder.
Somatization Pattern / Briquet's Syndrome
The individual experiences a large and varied number of bodily symptoms. Experience many long-lasting physical ailments with no known cause such as headaches. For diagnosis, must have several pain symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, a sexual symptom, and a neurological symptom.
Predominant Pain Pattern
Pain disorder associated with psychological factors. The person's primary bodily problem is the experience of pain. Diagnosis is possible when psychosocial factors play a central role in the onset, severity, or continuation of pain. Often develops after an accident or illness that caused genuine pain.
Psychodynamic Perspective for Somatic Symptom Disorders
Freud came to believe that hysterical (implied it only happened to women) disorders (conversion and somatic symptom disorders) represented a conversion of underlying emotional conflicts into physical symptoms and concerns. Since most patients were women, Freud centered his explanation on the need of girls during their phallic stage (3-5) bc he believed that during that tome girls develop the Electra complex, however they suppress it. If a child's parents overreact to her sexual feelings with strong punishments, the Electra conflict will be unresolved and the child may reexperience sexual activity throughout life. Freud concluded that some women hide their sexual feelings by unconsciously converting them into physical symptoms and concerns. Current theorists disregard the Electra conflict but continue to emphasize unconscious conflicts carries from childhood.
In psychodynamic theory, the gain people derive when their somatic symptoms keep their internal conflicts out of awareness.
In psychodynamic theory, the gain people derive when their somatic symptoms elicit kindness from others or provide an excuse to avoid unpleasant activities.
Behavioral Perspective for Somatic Symptom Disorders
Behaviorists propose that the physical symptoms of conversion and somatic symptom disorders bring rewards to sufferers. They also hold that people who are familiar with an illness will more readily adopt its physical symptoms. May remove individual from unpleasant situations and brings attention from others. In response, people learn to display symptoms more, similar to secondary gain but behaviorists view gains as the primary cause.
Cognitive Perspective for Somatic Symptom Disorders
Some cognitive theorists propose that conversion and somatic symptom disorders are forms of communication, providing a means for people to express emotions that would otherwise be difficult to convey. They hold that the emotions of people with the disorders are being converted into physical symptoms to communicate extreme feelings like anger or fear in a physical language that's familiar and comfortable for the person.
Multicultural Perspective for Somatic Symptom Disorders
Most western clinicians believe that it's inappropriate to produce or focus excessively on somatic symptoms in response to personal distress (more common and seen as a norm in non-western countries). Some theorists believe that this position reflects a western bias that sees somatic reactions as an inferior way of dealing with emotions. Both bodily and psychological reactions to life events are often influenced by one's culture.
Treatments for Somatic Symptom Disorders
Psychotherapy and/or psychotropic drug therapy only after medical diagnostics have failed to tell them what they want to hear.
Disorders Featuring Somatic Symptoms
Problems that appear to be medical but are actually caused by psychosocial factors. Not psychophysiological disorders which arises from an actual physical ailment affected by psychosocial factors.
Illness Anxiety Disorder
A disorder in which people are chronically anxious about and preoccupied with the notion that they have or are developing a serious medical illness, despite the absence of somatic symptoms. Previously known as hypochrondriasis.
Psychophysiological Disorders / Psychological Factors Affecting Other Medical Conditions / Psychosomatic Disorders
Disorders in which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors interact to cause or worsen a physical illness.
1) presence of a general medical condition
2) psychological factors adversely affecting the general medical condition in one of the following ways:
a) influence the course of the general medical condition,
b) interfering with the treatment of the condition,
c) posing additional health risks,
d) stress-related physiological responses precipitating or exacerbating the condition.
A lesion/hole that forms in the wall of the stomach of the duodenum. Leads to burning sensation/pain/vomiting/and stomach pain. Psychophysiological disorder.
A medical problem marked by narrowing of the trachea and bronchi, which results in shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chocking sensation. Psychophysiological disorder.
Muscle Contraction Headache / Tension Headache
A headache caused by a narrowing of muscles surrounding the skull. Psychophysiological disorder.
A very severe headache that occurs on one side of the head, often preceded by a warning sensation and sometimes accompanied by dizziness, nausea, or vomiting. Psychophysiological disorder.
Coronary Heart Disease
Illness of the heart caused by a blockage in the coronary arteries. Psychophysiological disorder.
Biological Factors for Psychophysiological Disorders
Defects in the ANS said to contribute to the development of psychophysical disorder. If one's ANS is stimulated too easily, it may overreact to situations that most people find only mildly stressful, eventually damaging certain organs and causing a psychophysiological disorder.
Psychological Factors for Psychophysiological Disorders
According to many theorists, certain needs, attitudes, emotions, or coping styles may cause people to overreact repeatedly to stressors and so increases their chances of developing psychophysiological disorders.
Type A Personality Style
A personality pattern characterized by hostility, cynicism, driveness, impatience, competitiveness, and ambition.
Type B Personality Style
A personality patten in which a person is more relaxed, less aggressive, and less concerned with time.
The study of the connections between stress, the body's immune system, and illness.
The body's network of activities and cells that identify and destroy antigens and cancer cells.
A foreign invader of the body, such as a bacterium or virus.
WBCs that circulate through the lymph system and blood stream, helping the body identify and destroy antigens and cancer cells.
A group of lymphocytes that identify antigens and then multipies and trigger the production of other kinds of immune cells.
Natural Killer T-Cells
A group of lymphocytes that seek our and destroy body cells that have been already infected by viruses, thus helping to stop the spread of a viral infection.
A group of lymphocytes that produces antibodies, protein molecules that recognize and bind to antigens, mark them for destruction, and prevent them from causing infections.
Biochemical Activity for Psychophysiological Disorders
An increase of NE apparently contributes to slowing down the immune system. Research indicates that if stress continues for an extended time, NE eventually travels to receptors on certain lymphocytes and gives them an inhibitory message to stop their activity, thus slowing down immune functioning. Also, if stress continues for an extended time, the stress hormones (corticosteroids) eventually travel to receptor sites located on certain lymphocytes and give an inhibitory message, again slowing down the activity of the lymphocytes.
Stress -> increased activity by the SNS -> increased release of NE.
Behavioral Changes for Psychophysiological Disorders
Stress may set in motion a series of behavioral changes that indirectly affect the immune system. Some people may develop anxiety, depression, eat poorly, sleep badly, etc.
Personality Style for Psychophysiological Disorders
People who generally respond to life stress with optimism, constructive coping, and resilience experience better immune system functioning and are better prepared to fight off illness.
Social Support for Psychophysiological Disorders
People who have few social support and feel lonely tend to have poorer immune functioning in the face of stress than people who don't feel lonely. Social support affiliation may protect people.
A field that combines psychological and physical interventions to treat or prevent medical problems. Ex. biofeedback, relaxation training, meditation, etc.
A disorder marked by the pursuit of extreme thinness and by extreme weight loss. Two types: restricting type and binge-eating/purging type. Preoccupied with food (thinking and reading about food). Distorted way of thinking, especially about body weight and shape.
The absence of menstrual cycles.
Bulimia Nervosa / Binge-Purge Syndrome
A disorder marked by frequent eating binges that are followed by forced vomiting or other extreme compensatory behaviors to avoid gaining weight.
Purging type: forced vomiting, etc.
Non-purging type: exercising and fasting.
An episode of uncontrollable eating during which a person ingests a very large quantity of food. Usually preceded by feelings of great tension/powerlessness. Followed by guilt, fear of being discovered, self-blame, depressed.
A disorder marked by frequent binges but not extreme compensatory behaviors.
Multidimensional Risk Perspective
A theory that identifies several kinds of risk factors that are thought to combine to help cause a disorder. The more factors present, the greater the risk of developing the disorder.
Psychodynamic Perspective for Eating Disorders
Disturbed mother-child interactions lead to serious ego deficiencies in the child (including a poor sense of independence and control) and to severe perceptual disturbances that jointly help produce disordered eating. Parents may respond to their children either effectively or ineffectively. Effective parents accurately attend to their children's biological and emotional needs, giving them food when they're crying from hunger and comfort when they're crying out of fear. Ineffective parents fail to attend to their children's needs, deciding that their children are hungry, cold, or tired without correctly interpreting the children's actual condition. They may feed their children when they're anxious rather than hungry, comfort when tired not anxious. Children with ineffective parents may group up confused and unaware of their own internal needs (helpless).
Cognitive Perspective for Eating Disorders
As a result of ineffective parenting, people with eating disorders improperly label their internal sensations and needs, generally feel little control over their lives, and in turn, want to have excessive levels of control over their body size, shape, and eating habits. These deficiencies contribute to a broad cognitive distortion that lies at the center of disordered eating. Some theorists suggest that depressive disorders set the stage for eating disorders.
Biological Perspective for Eating Disorders
Found a link b/t eating disorders and the genes responsible for the production of serotonin, and still others have measured low serotonin activity in many people with eating disorders. That can also cause the body to crave and binge on high-carb foods. Link b/t hypothalamus and eating disorders. Theory: hypothalamus related brain areas + chemicals = responsible for weight set-point. Relatives of people with eating disorders are up to 6 times more likely to develop the disorders themselves.
A part of the brain that helps regulate various bodily functions, including eating and hunger.
Lateral Hypothalamus (LH)
A brain region that produces hunger when activated.
Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)
A brain region that depresses hunger when activated.
Weight Set Point
The weight level that a person is predisposed to maintain, controlled in part by the hypothalamus.
Societal Pressures for Eating Disorders
Eating disorders are more common in western countries than in other parts of the world. Many theorists believe that western standards of female attractiveness are partly responsible for the emergence of the disorders. Socially accepted prejudice against overweight people. Societal attitudes may explain economic and racial differences seen in prevalence rates. Members of certain subcultures are at a greater risk from societal pressures. Ex. gymnasts.
Enmeshed Family Pattern
A family system in which members are overinvolved with each other's affairs and overconcerned about each other's welfare. Mothers more likely to be dieters and perfectionistic themselves for people with eating disorders.
Men with this are very muscular but still can see themselves as scrawny and small and therefore continue to strive for a "perfect" body through extreme measures such as excessive weightlifting or the abuse of steroids.
Goals for Treating Eating Disorders
First is to correct the dangerous eating patterns as quickly as possible. The second is to address the broader psychological and situational factors that have led to and maintain the eating disorder. Using CBT, family therapy, antidepressant drug therapy, etc.
A cluster of temporary undesirable behavioral or psychological changes that develop during or shortly after the ingestion of a substance.
Substance Use Disorder
A pattern of long-term maladaptive behaviors and reactions brought about by repeated use of a substance.
The brain and body's need for ever larger doses of a drug to produce earlier effects.
Unpleasant, sometimes dangerous reactions that may occur when people who use a drug regularly stop taking or reduce their dosage of the drug.
Depressant. Any beverage containing ethyl alcohol, including beer, wine, and liquor. Absorbed through stomach lining and impacts bloodstream and CNS. Binds to GABA receptors and helps GABA to shutdown the neurons and makes us feel relaxed. ST: blocks messages b/t neurons. Alcohol's effects subside only after metabolized by the liver. You can't increase the speed of this process.
Substances that slow the CNS activity. They reduce tension and inhibitions and may interfere with a person's judgement, motor activity, and concentration. Ex. alcohol, sedative-hypnotic drugs (barbiturates), and opioids.
Delirium Tremens (DTs)
A dramatic withdrawal reaction that some people who are dependent on alcohol have. It consists of confusion, clouded consciousness, and terrifying visual hallucinations.
Damage to the liver due to long-term excessive drinking making the liver dysfunctional.
An alcohol-related disorder marked by extreme confusion, memory impairment, and other neurological symptoms. Many confabulate, say made up events to fill in the gaps. Caused by a deficiency of vitamin B (thiamine).
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A cluster of problems in a child, including low birth weight, irregularities in the head and face, and intellectual deficits, caused by excessive alcohol intake by the mother during pregnancy.
Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs / Anxiolytic Drugs
Depressant. A drug used in low doses to reduce anxiety and in higher doses to help people sleep. Includes barbiturates and benzodiazepines.
Depressant. Addictive sedative-hypnotic drugs that reduce anxiety and help people sleep. Also helps GABA by binding to receptors on the neurons that receive GABA and increases GABA's activity at those neurons.
Depressant. The most common group of antianxiety drugs, which includes valium and xanax. Less likely to get addicted to these drugs, which is why they're commonly prescribed. Also helps GABA by binding to receptors on the neurons that receive GABA and increases GABA's activity at those neurons.
Depressant. Opium or any of the drugs derived from opium, like morphine, heroin, and codeine. Depresses the CNS. Opioids attach to endorphin receptors and in turn, the body stops producing its own endorphins when the person starts taking opioids.
Depressant. A highly addictive substance made from the sap of the opium poppy.
Depressant. A highly addictive substance derived from opium that's particularly effective in relieving pain.
Depressant. One of the most addictive substances derived from opium. An overdose shuts off respiratory center in the brain, typically in sleeo.
NTs that help relieve pain and reduce emotional tension. Often referred to as the body's own opioids.
Substances that increase CNS activity, resulting in increased blood pressure, more alertness, and sped-up behavior and thinking. Includes cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine, and nicotine.
Stimulant. An addictive stimulant obtained from the coca plant. Most powerful natural stimulant known. Increases dopamine, NE, and serotonin activity. Produces euphoric rush, called biochemical euphoria. High doses can produce cocaine intoxication, symptoms include mania, paranoia, and impaired judgement. Afterwards, a depression-like letdown (crashing). Excessive doses depress the brain's respiratory function, heart failure, and pregnancy issues.
A technique for ingesting cocaine in which the pure cocaine basic alkaloid is chemically separated from processed cocaine, vaporized by heat from a flame, and inhaled with a pipe causing hallucinations.
Stimulant. A powerful, ready-to-smoke freebase cocaine in the shape of crystalline balls.
Stimulant. A stimulant drug that's manufactured in the laboratory. Found in pill or capsule form. Sometimes injected intravenously or smoked for a rush. Leads to increase in energy and alertness and decrease in appetite in small doses. n large doses, produces rush, intoxication, and psychosis. Causes an emotional letdown as it leaves the body. 1.5-2% of people become dependent.
Stimulant. A powerful amphetamine that has surged in popularity in recent years, posing major health and law enforcement problems. Increases activity of dopamine, serotonin, and NE.
Stimulant. The world's most widely used stimulant, most often consumed in coffee.
Hallucinogen / Psychedelic Drugs
A substance that causes powerful changes primarily in sensory perception, including strengthening perceptions and producing illusions and hallucinations. Including LSD and MDMA (ecstasy).
LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)
A hallucinogenic drug derived from ergot alkaloids. Will have you super focused on, for example, the details of grass.
Drugs produced from the varieties of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. They cause a mixture of hallucinogenic, depressant, and stimulant effects.
One of the cannabis drugs, derived from the buds, leaves, and flowering tops of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa.
The main ingredient of Cannabis substances. This is what determines how strong the drug will be.
Tolerance for a substance one has not taken before as a result of using another substance similar to it.
In pharmacology, an increase of effects that occurs when more than one substance is acting on the body at the same time. If you take a stimulant and a depressant at the same time, stimulant slows processing / metabolizing of the depressant so it can lead to lethal doses of the depressant.
Sociocultural Perspective for Substance Use Disorder
Proposes that people are most likely to develop substance use disorders when they live under stressful socioeconomic conditions. Holds that people confronted regularly by other kinds of stress also have an increased chance of abusing substances. Also, people are more likely to develop substance use disorders if they are part of a family or social environment in which substance use is valued or at least accepted.
Psychodynamic Perspective for Substance Use Disorder
Believe that people with substance use disorders have powerful dependency needs that can be traced to their early years. They suggest that when parents fail to satisfy a young child's need for nurturance, the child is likely to grow up depending excessively on others for help and comfort, trying to find the nurture and eventually find drugs. Also, certain people may respond to their early deprivations by developing a substance abuse personality (more dependent, antisocial, impulsive, novelty-seeking, risk-taking, and depressive) that leaves them particularly prone to drug abuse.
Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective for Substance Use Disorder
According to behaviorists, operant conditioning may play a key role in substance use disorders. They argue that the temporary reduction of tension or raising of spirits produced by a drug has a rewarding effect, thus increasing the likelihood that the user will seek this reaction again. The rewarding effects may eventually lead users to try higher dosages or more powerful methods of ingestion. Cognitive theorists further argue that such rewards eventually produce an expectancy that substances will be rewarding, and this expectation helps motivate people to increase drug use at times of tension. Also, cues or objects present in the environment at the time a person takes a drug may act as classically conditioned stimuli and come to produce some of the same pleasure as drugs.
Biological Perspective for Substance Use Disorder
People might be genetically predisposed to substance use disorder. Also, when a particular drug is ingested, it increases the activity of certain NTs whose normal purpose is to calm, reduce pain, lift mood, and increase alertness. When a person keeps on taking the drug, the brain apparently makes an adjustment and reduces its own production of the NTs. Bc the drugs increase NT activity/efficiency, the brain's release of the NT is less necessary.
A dopamine-rich pathway in the brain that produces feelings of pleasure when activated. Extends from the ventral tegmental area in the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens and to the frontal cortex. Drugs increase levels of dopamine along this.
When people's reward centers are not readily activated by the usual events in their lives, so they turn to drugs to stimulate this pathway, particularly during times of stress.
Psychodynamic Therapies for Substance Use Disorder
First guide clients to uncover and work through the underlying needs and conflicts that they believe have led to the disorder. The therapists then try to help the clients change their substance-related styles of living.
Behavioral Therapies for Substance Use Disorder
Contingency Management, which makes incentives (like cash) contingent on the submission of drug-free specimens.
Aversion therapy - a treatment in which clients are repeatedly presented with unpleasant stimuli while they're performing undesirable behaviors such as taking a drug.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Substance Use Disorder
Helps clients identify and change the behaviors and cognitions that keep contributing to their patterns of substance misuse.
A CBT approach to treating alcohol use disorder in which clients are taught to keep track of their drinking behavior, apply coping strategies in situations that typically trigger excessive drinking, and plan ahead for risky situations and reactions. To gain control over their disorder.
Biological Treatments / Therapies for Substance Use Disorder
May be used to help people withdraw from substances, abstain from them, or simply maintain their level of use without increasing it further. Like detoxication.
Systematic and medically supervised withdrawal from a drug.
Drugs that block or change the effects of an addictive drug.
Methadone Maintenance Program
A biological treatment approach in which clients are given legally and medically supervised doses of methadone (a heroin substitute) to treat heroin-centered substance use disorder.
Sociocultural Therapies for Substance Use Disorder
Believes that psychological problems emerge in a social setting and are best treated in a social context. Like self-help groups (AA).
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
A self-help organization that provides support and guidance for people with alcohol use disorder.
Residential Treatment Center / Therapeutic Community
A place where people formerly addicted to drugs live, work, and socialize in a drug-free environment.
A disorder marked by persistent and recurrent gambling behavior, leading to a range of life problems.