Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

Drug use and abuse > Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (72):
1

What are the biological characteristics of drugs?

▫ Inherited Differences in Reactions to Drugs ▫ Gender
▫ Weight
▫ Age

2

a term used to represent a cluster of enduring characteristics that describe the ways in which an individual thinks perceives, feels, and acts.

personality

3

“the need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experiences and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experience.”

sensation seeking

4

what are the aspects of sensation seeking

▫ Thrill and adventure seeking ▫ Experience seeking
▫ Disinhibition
▫ Boredom susceptibility

5

what is the major reason people use drugs and alcohol

stress reduction

6

what is theLittle evidence of an addictive personality?

The Addictive Personality

7

A person’s anticipation of or belief about what he or she will experience upon taking a drug.

drug expectancies

8

government laws about substance use, people and places that define the immediate drug-use setting

environment matters

9

_____________ is when reported experiencing physical changes: fuzzy
thinking, sleepiness, and dizziness

drinking alone

10

_____________ is when they reported their mood changed to feeling friendly and more pleasant

drinking with others

11

an increase in the rate of metabolizing a drug as a result of its regular use.

dispositional tolerance

12

decreased behavioral effects of a drug as a result of its regular use.

functional tolerance

13

occurs within a course of action of a single drug dose.

acute tolerance

14

occurs over the course of two or more drug administrations.

protracted tolerance

15

Tolerance to a drug or drugs never taken that results from protracted tolerance to another drug or drugs.

cross tolerance

16

Increased sensitivity to a drug with repeated use of
it.

reverse tolerance

17

assumes that a drug acts on specific cells in the central nervous system

cell adaptation theory

18

What are the 3 things of tolerance?

Not irreversable
• Reacquisition happens quickly • Genetics

19

A consequence of a behavior that
INCREASES its future likelihood

reinforcer

20

Behavior increases to receive reward

positive reinforcement

21

behavior increases to avoid or escape

negative reinforcement

22

A consequence of a behavior that DECREASES its future likelihood.

punisher

23

A study that involves testing whether research
participants will “give themselves” a drug

self administration

24

“this wont hurt until tomorrow!”

hangover

25

what helps to explain the bases of perceived similarities
and differences?

Drug discrimination study

26

Procedure concerning the effects on behavior of a drug that has a history of both reinforcement and punishment

Conflict Paradigm

27

Applicability of a research finding from one setting or group of research participants to others.

Generalizable

28

basic principle of the code is that research with humans cannot be conducted without the subjects’ responsible, voluntary, informed consent.

Nuremberg Code

29

When drug effects are influenced by subjects’ histories with and beliefs and expectancies about drugs

placebo effects

30

A type of experimental design in which groups of subjects are compared to establish experimental findings

Group design

31

The commercial name given to a drug by its manufacturer.

brand name

32

The name given to a drug that represents its chemical structure

chemical name

33

The general name given to a drug that is shorter than its chemical name.

generic name

34

The branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distribu-on,and
possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health

Epidemiology

35

Emil Kraepelin, Phillip Pinel, and J.E. Equirol developed a classification system of __________

mental illness

36

__________ is for depression

Amphetamines

37

What kind of therapy is used today?

Electroshock

38

What did Chloropromazine do?

Decreased anxiety
– Prevented shock during surgery
– Reduc-on of hospitalized psychiatric pa-ents – Reserpine – 1954

39

What is Meprobamate?

muscle relaxer

40

What is MAOIs?

antidepressants

41

_____________ of the U.S. adult popula-on experience mental disorder in any given year

1/4

42

Almost __________of U.S. adults met the criteria for a mental illness at some point in their lives

1/2

43

_____________ of adults with one mental disorder met the criteria for another disorder

45%

44

When do signs of mental illness occur?

14 or 24

45

For Psychotherapeutic Medication _____________ use is about twice as high among women as among men

gender

46

Psychotherapeutic medication use increases with _________-?

age

47

For the Elderly_________of drugs taken in the US

1/3

48

Mandates explicit procedures for distributing and
dispensing Rx medications

The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Preven-on and Control Act of 1970

49

What is Therapeutic usage of of psychotherapeutric drugs?

Antipsychotics, Antidepressants, Anti-anxiety agents, Antimanic medications

50

_________________ Used primarily for Schizophrenia and associated symptoms.

Antipsychotics

51

_______________ of the population in the US will experience a depressive episode in their life-me

20%

52

What does SSRI stand for?

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

53

What does SNRI stand for?

Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors)

54

__________ is depression results from a deficiency in catecholamines (par-cularly norepinephrine) at varied neuron receptor sites in the brain

Catecholamine hypothesis

55

____________ is the other central theory of an-depressant ac-on, postulates that depression is the result of a deficiency of the neurotransmiler serotonin in the brain.

seretonin hypothesis

56

What does MAOIs stand for?

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

57

____________ people seem to experience their anxiety most of the -me

characterological anxiety

58

anxiety is much greater at some -mes than at others

Situational anxiety

59

___________________ is used for Depressant drugs formally used as sleeping pills

barbiturates

60

____________ is the most currently the most widely perscribed an--anxiety
drug

Benzodiazepines

61

___________ is a state with pronounced eleva-ons in mood and increased ac-vity

Used for Mania

62

When was coca available?

1850s

63

symptoms of itching and feeling as if insects are crawling under the skin

Formication syndrome

64

Coca was medically used when?

1920s

65

What war did they used coca on for the veterans?

WWll

66

selling large quantities (500 gm) of cocaine powder will get you a minimum offense of ___________ years.

5

67

The _____________ Regulates sell of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine

1996 Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act

68

How long does cocain effects last?

20-80 minutes

69

How long does amphetamines last?

4-12 hours

70

___________ also increases the release of dopamine and norepinephrine

Amphetamines

71

___________ is another word for sympathomimetic drugs

stimulants

72

___________ is a name for Methlphenidate

Ritalin