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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (70):
1

Basic Characteristics of living things

Organization
Use energy
Metabolism
Homeostasis
Reproduce
Use nucleic acids

2

Carbohydrates

Carbs- C H O Glucose is a simple sugar. Starch is chain of sugars, storage. Chitin acts as skeleton, cellulose as structure

3

Proteins

Made of amino acids (C H O N)
Enzymes catalyze
Some hormones (send messages) are proteins
Many purposes, like bioluminescence and antifreeze

4

Lipids

Fats oils waxes
Repel water and buoyancy

5

Nucleic Acids

Chains of nucleotides (sugar plus nitrogen base)
DNA
All genetic info = genome
RNA

6

ATP

Adenosine tri phosphate, energy

7

Photosynthesis
Respiration

Sun + CO2 + H2O = glucose + O2

Respiration is opposite

8

Primary production

Making more energy than needed, leftover for growth

9

Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes

No nucleus less complex and opposite

10

Surface area to volume ratio

Limits cell growth, smaller is better

11

Autotroph vs heterotrophs

Makes energy vs eating for energy

12

Organization of living things

Cell

13

Plankton

Organisms that drift in water

14

Benthic

Live on bottom

15

Nekton

Organisms that swim strongly enough to fight current

16

Diffusion

Things moving from high to low concentration

17

Osmosis

Diffusion of water

18

Passive vs active transport

Passive=diffusion
Active=movement across concentration gradient

19

Osmoconformer

Always same as water, live in narrow range

20

Hyper hypo and isotonic

Cell shrinks; cell explodes; cell same

21

Osmoregulator

Control internal concentration

22

Osmoregulation of fresh and salt water fish

Fresh: water goes through gills, gills absorb salt, dilute pee

Salt: drinks constantly, loses water through osmosis, small but salty pee

23

Ecto vs endotherm

Change heat with environment(cold) ; generate heat (warm)

24

Poikilo vs homeotherm

Changes with tempature of surroundings; same internal temperature

25

Asexual strategies

Mitosis-cell split
Fission- anemone split
Budding- grow off of parent

26

Sexual strategies

Broadcast spawn- throw gametes everywhere
Couple kids, lots o time
Hermaphrodite

27

Haploid and diploid

1 set of chromes and 2 sets of chromes

28

Why is sex awesome

Biological diversity

29

Evolution/natural selection

Change over time, weak dying

30

Binomial nomenclature and phylogeny

Genus species; evolutionary history

31

Domains and kingdoms

Bacteria-bacteria
Archaea- archaea
Eukarya- Protista, animailia, plantae, fungi

32

Cyanobacteria

Blue-green algae. Blue phycocyanin, red phycoerythrin, green cholophyl

33

Stromatolites

Calcareous mounds made by Cyanobacteria

34

Nitrogen fixation

Turn N2 into ammonium

35

Epiphyte

Lives on plants

36

Endophyte

Lives in plants

37

Endolithic

Lives in rocks

38

3 symbiotic relationships

Parasitism one benefits, ones harmed

Commensalism one benefits, other not harmed

Mutualism both benefit

39

3 examples of symbiosis

Digest wood in shipworms

Bioluminescence

Chemosynthetic bacteria

40

Tetrodotoxin

Pufferfish toxin, made by bacteria, is a neurotoxin

41

Algae

Diverse, eukaryotic, Protista, simple

42

The world of diatoms

Phylum Bacillariophyta
Cell wall is called fustule, made of silica
Pigments: yellow and brown carotenoids
Produces domoic acid
Auxospores are mini versions of it after sexual reproduction
Causes blooms
Dead ones piled up makes diatomaceous ooze

43

Hypotheca

Lower frustule

44

Centric; pennate; epitheca

I don’t know

45

The world of dinoflagellates

Phylum dinophyta
Cellulose plates
Two flagella
Produce and also eat
Make really red blooms
Cell division

46

Zooxanthellae

Golden brown symbiotic dinoflagellates

47

Silicoflagellates

Star shaped, uses for dating sediments, chrysophyta, two different length flagella

48

Coccolithophorids

Haptophyta, spherical, coccoliths are calcium carbonate buttons that make them up

49

Cryptophytes

Cryptophyta; two flagella, no skeleton, symbiotic relationship with chloroplast

50

Forams

Foraminifera; test (shell) of calcium carbonate; has pseudopodia which is extension of cytoplasm for eating; animal like; make limestone, benthic

51

Radiolarians

Radiolaria; planktonic; delicate silica skeletons; can make sausage shaped colonies; can make radiolarian ooze

52

Ciliates

Ciliophora; protozoan (animal like); many cilia (hair); tintinnids are common ciliates, they form loricas, which are loose vaselike tests

53

Fungi

Eukaryotic, uni or multicellular, form long filaments called hyphae, chitin in cell walls, decompose detritus

54

Lichen

Fungi symbiotically living with green algae or Cyanobacteria, fungi are structure, other part provides food

55

Other name for seaweed

Algae

56

Green algae

Chlorophyta; dominate place with wide salinity range; bays and rocky coasts; chlorophyll is pigment

57

4 forms of green algae

Filamentous; ulva; caulerpa;halimeda

58

Brown algae

Phaeophyta; fucoxanthin is primary pigment, yellow brown; temperate and rocky coasts; most diverse; rock weeds and kelps;

59

Red algae

Rhodophyta; phycobilins (phycocyanin, phycoerythrin); shallow water; coralline algae deposit calcium carbonate in their cell walls

60

Thallus; stipe; blade; holdfast; pneumatocyst

Body; stem; leaf; roots; gas bubble to lift blades

61

Leaf vs blade

Leaf has veins; the top and bottom of blades are the same

62

Roots vs holdfast

Roots absorb nutrients, holdfast only for structure. All of the algae absorbs nutrients through the water

63

Alternation of generations

Switch from sporophyte to gametophyte

64

Sporophyte; gametophyte; spore; gamete

2n;n; cells specialized for transportation; sex cells

65

Categorize the following:
Ulva, kelps, fucus, laminaria, sargassum, macrocystis, porphyra, corallina

Green: ulva
Brown: kelp, fucus, laminaria, maceocystis, sargassum
Red: porphyra, corallina

66

Phycocilloids
Use for algin; carageenan; agar

Gelatinous chemicals
Used for ice cream and dairy stabilizer and rubber products; also emulsifier, pudding; protect stuff for canning, laxative, grow bacteria

67

Flowering plants

Angiosperms; anthophyta or magnoliophyta; seagrasses; salt-marsh plants; mangroves

68

Seagrasses

Not actually grass; horizontal rhizomes (stems); water dispersed pollen; most are tropical, few cold; shallow water; eelgrass most widely distributed

69

Salt-Marsh plants

Cordgrasses; spartina; actually grass; not marine; above mudflats; can excrete salt; halophyte=salt tolerant

70

Mangroves

Trees and shrubs that live in tropical areas; can kinda tolerate salt; mangals= forest of them; not related; cannot be eaten well; very thick salt resistant leaves in red mangroves