Exam 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (57):
1

Chordate characteristics

Hollow dorsal nerve chord; gill slits; notochord (support); post anal tail

2

Vertebrates have the 4 chordate characteristics and....

Backbone/ vertical column

3

Myomeres

Bands of muscles that contract for moving in fish

4

Three groups of fish

Bony, cartilaginous, jawless

5

Lampreys vs hagfish

Lamps attach to fishes and suck their blood; hagfish eat dead stuff or burrow into things, have mucus glands

6

Placoderms

Armored, extinct, prehistoric fish

7

Cartilaginous skeleton; no rib cage; placoid scales; no swim bladder; exposed gills; large oil filled liver; ventral mouth; heterocercal caudal fins; more posterior pelvic fin; low pectoral fins.

Lighter and more flexible than bone; super flexible cause no robs; tiny pointed scales, same comp as teeth; use liver for buoyancy cause no swim bladder; mouth below head; upper tail is larger than lower tail;

8

Examples of cartilaginous fish

Shark ray chimera

9

Buoyancy in Cart vs bone fish

Oil liver vs swim bladder

10

Placoid scales vs ctenoid scales vs cycloid scales

Placoid: cart fish, pointy
Ctenoid: bone fish, tiny spines for exposed borders
Cycloid: bone fish, smooth
Both c scales overlap and are flexible

11

Why are shark teeth cool

Conveyor belt

12

Spiracle; clasper; spiral valve

Small holes behind each eye for cart fish, first pair of gills so they can breathe wild underground; copulatory organs, clasp into female; spiral part for cart fish of intestine to increase inner surface area

13

Ampullae of Lorenzini; nictitating membranes

Detects weak electrical fields in cart fish (in the head); reduce brightness in eye while feeding (some sharks).

14

Two types of bony fish

We will get ere

15

Operculum; homocercal caudal fins; high pectoral fins; more anterior pelvic fin

Gill cover; same size up and low tail;

16

Fusiform; laterally compressed; depressed; eel like

Torpedo shape; flat; depressed; looks like an eel

17

Chromatophore; countrrshadong; warning coloration; cryptic coloration; disruptive coloration; eye spot

Colored pigment cells; light bellies, dark backs; I’m bright and poisonous so don’t eat me; camouflage; hard to tell where the outline of the fish is; my eye is over here

18

Herbivores have long intestines becauseeeee

It’s harder to digest plant material! :D

19

Cloaca vs separate anus and urogenital opening

Poop pee and sex stuff out of same opening; pee and sex stuff separate from poop

20

Marine fish circulatory system

No O2 blood goes in one chamber, goes to other one, goes to gills to get O2, goes to body through arteries (big) then capillaries (small). Repeat process

21

Respiratory system, bone vs cart

Operculum and mouth open and close at opposite times for bony fish; cart fish (sharks) basically just swim all the time to force water down their mouth

22

Gill arches; gill filaments; gill rakers; lamellae

Support; 2 per arch; prevent stuff from getting in gills; thin plates with capillaries to get more oxygen (really increase surface area)

23

Countercurrent flow

Water and blood flow opposite direction, gets more O2

24

Hemoglobin, myoglobin

Protein that carries O2 in blood; store O2 in muscles

25

Osmoregulation bone vs cart

Less salty blood, swallows and pees; just as salty as water, has urea (chem controlled by kidneys)

26

Lateral line; ampullae of lorenzini

Detect vibrations; detect weak electrical fields

27

Barbels

Whiskers with taste buds on them

28

Neuromast

Sensory cells on the lateral line

29

Why to school

Protection feeding mating swim efficiency

30

Anadromous vs catadromous

Migrate to fresh water to breed; migrate to salt water to breed

31

Simultaneous vs sequential hermaphrodites

Make egg and sperm at the same time; change sexes under certain conditions

32

Reproductive strat

Cart internal, bone external

33

Oviparous; ovoviporous; viviparous

Spawn eggs; internal eggs; embryo absorbs nutrients thru moms reproductive tract

34

4 classes of air breathing tetrapods

Amphibia Aves (birds) reptilia mammalia

35

Bodies hypotonic to sea water

Sea water tries to get in

36

Are amphibians strictly terrestrial

No; they absolutely need water to lay their eggs

37

Major reptile characteristics

Dry skin with scales; eggs with leathery shells; air breathing

38

Ichthyosaur

Extinct reptile

39

4 groups of living marine reptiles

Sea turtles, sea snakes, marine iguana, American/ saltwater crocodiles

40

Sea snake reproduction

Ovoviviparous; give birth to love young; males have two copilatory organs

41

Sea turtle life cycle

Born on beach swim to ocean

42

Why sea turtle hatchlings are basically screwed

All sorts of predators, accidentally going the wrong way

43

What are “turtle exclusion devices”

Things in nets that let turtles get out

44

Major characteristics of marine birds

Flying (duh), waterproof feathers from oil gland above tail, hollow bones, hard egg shells

45

What makes something a “seabird”

Spend most of their lives at sea and feed on marine stuff; most breed in large colonies

46

How are penguins different?

They can’t fly, wowzers

47

Shorebirds

Shorebirds wade a lot and don’t have webbed feet (ducks and the like)

48

Sea mammals

Viviparous, mammary glands, placenta, super complicated brain

49

The 4 orders of marine mammals

Pinnipeds (seals sea lions walrus)
Carnivora (sea otter polar bear)
Sirenia (manatees and dugong)
Cetaceans (whales dolphins porpoises)

50

Sea lions vs seals

Sea lions have external ears and can walk on their rear flippers

51

Cetacean characteristics

Blubber blowhole streamlined and breathe air

52

Two suborders

Baleen and toothed whales

53

Baleen

Flexible plates for teeth, made of keratin

54

Convergent evolution

Evolve in same conditions so look similar; ex whales and fish

55

Homologous structures

Came from common ancestor, different function

56

Vestigial structure

Leftover stuff (pelvis in whales)

57

International whaling commission

Marine mammal protection act 1972

Set Quito’s for whales

Can’t hunt any marine mammals in us waters or buy products from them