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Flashcards in EXAM 3 Deck (58):
1

Vertebrate vs invertebrate

Backbone, no backbone makes up 97% of animals

2

Sponge stuff (phylum structure etc)

Porifera, basically no structure, no tissues or organs or symmetry

3

Porocyte, choanocyte, osculum, spicule, spongin, wandering cell

Tubelike cell that lets water enter, collar cells that line feeding chamber with flagella, opening on top of sponge, silicosis or calcareous support, protein making skeleton, excrete spongin or transform to other stuff (amebocytes)

4

Sessile; filter feeder

Permannately attached to bottom; filter food particles

5

Hermaphrodite

Have male and female gonads

6

Encrusting; boring; coralline sponge

Thin growths on rocks; bore through calcium carbonate; calcium carbonate skeleton which is base of sponge

7

Coelenterates

Cnidaria (called cnidarians); radial symmetry; oral and aboral surface; polyp and Medusa form; anemones corals and jellies; larva is planula

8

Tissues; radial symmetry; gut cavity with one opening; nerve net

Bunch of cells with a purpose working together; cut like a pizza; eat and poop same place; basically a brain but not exactly

9

Polyp vs Medusa

Coral shape, jelly shape

10

Corals

Type of Anthozoan (solitary polyps) calcium carbonate skeletons

11

Tentacle; cnidocyte; nematocysts

Used to capture and handle food; specialized tentacle cells; stinging structures found in cnidocytes

12

Two layers of coelenterate cells

Epidermis (outside cells); gastrodermis (gut cells); mesoglea, middle layer in between

13

Hydrozoan

Feathery/bushy colonies of polyps; ex siphonophore (port man o war)

14

Scyphozoans

Large jellyfish, Medusa form

BOX JELLYFISH ARE THEIR OWN THING, CUBOMEDUSAE

15

Anthozoan

Solitary colonial polyps, septa=guy layers; ex sea anemones and corals

16

Comb jellies

Phylum Ctenophora; radially symmetrical, swim with ciliary combs, get stingers from eating other jellies, colloblasts are sticky cells

17

Bilateral symmetry; dorsal; ventral; anterior; posterior; cephalization

One way to cut body in half; back; belly; front end; rear end; all the nerves and stuff centered in the anterior

18

Why is bilateral symmetry awesome

Pursuit of prey, allow more complex behavior

19

Protostome vs deuterostome

Mouth formed first; anus formed first.
Worms and stuff; chordates and sea stars sea urchins

20

Morula; blastula; gastrula

I’ll get back to this

21

Ectoderm; mesoderm; endoderm

Outer layer, becomes skin brain and nerves;
Middle layer, tissues and organs;
Inner layer, gut lining

22

Flatworms

Platyhelminthes; literally just look like flat worms

23

Central nervous system (and muscle movement); tissues organized into organs; three embryonic germ layers; gut with one opening; no circulatory system. AS IT APPLIES TO FLAT WORMS

Brain can control muscles with nerve chords; self explanatory; mesoderm middle layer which allows muscles and other organs; poop and eat same place; blood and stuff is just kinda everywhere

24

Turbellarians (flatworm)

Free living carnivores that can also live in oysters and such

25

Trematodes/flukes (flatworms)

Always parasitic, adult in vertebrate and larva in invertebrate

26

Tapeworm/cestode (flatworm)

Long body of repeating units, no gut, parasitic, attach to a gut and just absorb nutrients

27

Ribbon worms

Nemertea; have a mouth and anus, slightly more complex than flatworms. Has a circulatory system, and has a proboscis (long fleshy tube to entangle prey)

28

Perks of having an internal body cavity

We will get here, dunno yet

29

Acoelomate; pseudocoelomate; coelomate

Hmmm

30

Open vs closed circulatory system

Closed circulatory system the blood always remains in distinct blood vessels

31

Roundworms (nematodes)

Nematoda; very tiny parasitic, and adapted to live in sediments or other organisms

32

Hydrostatic skeleton (nematodes)

Basically a liquid that is compressed into a skeleton, provides support and helps locomotion

33

Segmented worms

Annelids/ Annelida; segmented and gut is in a gut cavity called a coelom

34

Polychaetes

Huge group of marine annelids; have gills; trochophore= plaktonic larval stage; burrow or live in tubes; leeches and echiurans are examples

35

Mollusk fun: head; foot; mantle; radula; mantle secretion

Mollusca; has a head usually with eyes; one ventral muscular foot for locomotion; ribbon of small teeth used to feed which is made of chitin; mantle secrets shell

36

Gastropoda

Largest group; snails, sea slugs, coiled blob of organs covered by a shell

37

Bivalves (mollusk)

Clams mussels and oysters; flattened sideways; has two valves which is shell parts;

38

Cephalopods

Octopuses, squids, cuttlefishes; really dang smart; siphon lets them move

39

Funnel

Siphon, basically they force water out of it to move themselves

40

Arms vs tentacles

Tentacles are long and retractable, only have suckers at the end

41

Squids vs octopuses when it comes tentacles

Squid has 8 arms and 2 tentacles, octopuses have 8 arms

42

Cephalopod circulatory system

It’s closed; blood remains in vessels so it can be directed to the brain

43

Arthropoda; jointed appendages; chitinous exoskeleton; molting

Moved by sets of attached muscles; non living external skeleton; they have to shed their exoskeleton to grow

44

Why are Arthropods small

Exoskeleton

45

Land dominant vs marine dominant arthropods

Insects are wild; woah crustaceans

46

Chelicerates vs mandibulates

Have a chelicerates or a mandible

47

Chelicerae; carapace; telson; cephalothorax; abdomen; walking legs

Eating stuff; shell part; very end of abdomen; head and thorax; back end; Non claws

48

List crustaceans

Copepods barnacles shrimps lobsters crabs

49

Decapod

10 legs; shrimp lobster and crab

50

Pereopods; maxillipeds; carapace; cephalothorax; uropods; swimmerets; chelipeds

Claws; three pairs for eating; shell part; blah blah; tail cilia thing; tail leg things; leads to claw

51

Echinoderms: pentamerous radial symmetry; deuterostomes; water vascular system; tube feet; ampullae; madreporite

5 way symmetry; anus forms first; water filled canal network; muscular part of vascular system for walking; move the tube feet; porous plate on aboral surface

52

How do starfish eat

Throw up their stomach on stuff and eat it

53

List some echinoderms

Sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers

54

What is evisceration

Literally pukes our all of their organs

55

Four characteristics of being a chordate

Notochord
Gill or pharyngeal slits
Post anal tail
Dorsal nerve cord

56

Three chordate subphyla

Urochordata (tunicates)
Cephalochordata (lancelets)
Vertebrata

57

Cephalochordata lancelet structure

Basically a fish, just no backbone

58

Urochordata/ tunicates

Have a “tunic,” incurrent and excurrent siphons; squirt water so sea squirts