Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

Anesthesia > Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (81):
1

One cartridge of anesthetic contains

1.8mL of solution

2

Two types of vasoconstrictor in the united states

Epinephrine
Levonordefrin

3

This is a bacteriostatic agent and preservative that was added to local anesthetic agents without vasoconstrictors before 1984 to prevent bacterial growth

Methylparaben

4

Currently no dental local anesthetic cartridges contain this

Methylparaben

5

Two main classifications of local anesthetic agents

Ester
Amides

6

Theses are metabolized in the plasma by plasma cholinesterase

Ester

7

these metabolized in the liver

Amides

8

What is the Proprietary name for Lidocaine

Xylocaine
Lignospan
Octocaine

9

What is the Proprietary name for Mepivacaine

Carbocaine
Arestocaine
Isocaine
Polocaine
Scandonest

10

What is the Proprietary name for Prilocaine

Citanest
Citanest Forte

11

What is the Proprietary name for Articaine

Septocaine
Zorcaine
Articadent

12

What is the Proprietary name for Bupivacaine

Marcaine
Vivacaine

13

Which anesthetic is the longest duration and the most potent

Bupivacaine

14

This anesthetic has high pKa and therefore slowest onset

Bupivacaine

15

These anesthetic is quite effective without a vasoconstrictor, both are good alternatives when a vasoconstrictor is contraindicated

Mepivacaine
Prilocaine

16

Short duration of anesthetic

Mepivacaine

17

Medium duration

Lidocaine
Articaine
Prilocaine

18

Means that the administration of the offending drug may be used judiciously

Relative contraindication

19

Means the offending drug should not be administered to the individual under any circumstances

Absolute contraindication

20

IS the maximum quantity of drug, a patient can safely tolerate during an appointment based on their physical status

Maximum recommended dose (MRD)

21

Are one of the top food allergens. They are used in wine to prevent fermentation and oxidation.

Sulfites

22

People who are allergic to sulfites should not be given

an anesthetic with a vasoconstrictor

23

Frist amide local anesthetic suitable for nerve blocks in dentistry, common used local anesthetic solution in dentistry in the US

Lidocaine

24

Offers pulpal anesthesia of 5-10mins, rarely used in dentistry without a vasoconstrictor

Lidocaine

25

what is a good alternative if the use of a vasoconstrictor is a contraindicated

Mepivacaine

26

is not effective as a topical anesthetic

Mepivacaine

27

The primary limiting factor for clinical use of prilocaine is

Methemoglobinemia

28

this is characterized by the presence of a higher than normal level of methemoglobin in the blood that does not bind to oxygen

Methemoglobinemia

29

This occurs when prilocaine is methabolized to orthotoluidine

methemoglobinemia

30

Which anesthetic effects breathing

Prilocaine

31

Shortest half-life

Articaine

32

With articaine come clinicians have been concerned about the frequent reports of

Paresthesia

33

Is an persistent anesthesia beyond the expected duration or altered sensation such as tingling or itching, beyond normal level

Paresthesia

34

Is the most potent and toxic of all amide anesthetics

Bupivacaine

35

Concern when selecting Bupivacaine is a patient with

self-mutilation

36

Means that the anesthetic will be applied to a body surface such as the skin or mucous membrane

Topical

37

Topical anesthetics do not contain a

vasoconstrictor

38

Topical agent should remain at the site of penetration for

1 to 2mins

39

Topical anesthetics should achieved to a depth of approximately __into the tissue

2 to 3 mm

40

Topical comes in

Gel Ointment
Spray Patch
Liquid Lozenge
Cream

41

One of the more common and widely used topical anesthetics

Benzocaine

42

this is spot specific

Topical

43

What is an essential requirement before providing dental hygiene care

Medical history evaluation using appropriate dental and medical consultations of the pts current health status is an essential requirement

44

The administration of a ______ agent will further elevate the existing blood pressure of patients and to a greater extent in the anxious patient

Local anesthetic

45

What is important to provide the dental hygienist with baseline values as comparison standards in the event that an emergency situation should occur

Preanesthetic vital signs

46

another benefit to obtaining vital signs is to

identify diagnosed or undiagnosed conditions that may require modifications to treatment, drug selection and dosage

47

Palpate the radial artery on the tumb side on the wrist for 1 min

Pulse

48

(>100 bpm) is an abnormally elevated heart rate and may be sign of a cardiovascular disease or influenced by stress and anxiety

Tachycardia

49

(<60 bpm) slow heart rate

Bradycardia

50

local anesthetic containing epinephrine are contraindicated in pts with

uncontrolled cardiac dysrhythmias

51

breathing that is deeper and more rapid than normal, is common occurrence in apprehensive pts, especially before the administration of a local anesthetic injection

Hyperventilation

52

The weight of a patient is used before the administration of a local anesthetic to determine the patients

Maximum recommended dose (MRD)

53

Is any objectively unfounded fear or morbid dread of dental treatment

Dental phobia

54

Clinical signs of moderate anxiety

Unnaturally stiff posture
Nervous play
White knuckle syndrome
Perspiration on forehead and hands
over willingness to cooperate with clinician
Nervous conversation
Quick answers

55

cardiovascularly involved patients may receive vasoconstrictors in limited doses called

cardiac dose

56

The administration of the offending drug increases the possibility of a life-threatening situation and should not be administered to the individual under any circumstances

Absolute contraindication

57

The administration of the offending drug is preferably avoided because of the increased possibility of an adverse reaction to the drug. If an acceptable alternative drug is not available, the drug may be used judiciously

Relative contraindication

58

An antihypertensive drug used to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure

Nonselective B blocker

59

The bodys response to fear provoked the stress response referred to as

Fight-or-flight

60

What can recognized by increase in vital signs and visual observation of the pts body movements, skin color (paleness), cold sweats, posture, trembling, and verbal communication

Anxiety and fear

61

These drugs are used for the treatment of congestive heart failure

Digitalis glycosides (digoxin)

62

The combination of digitalis glycosides and epinephrine increases what

the potential for cardiac arrhythmias

63

What should not be administered to a patient who is suspected of using what? on the day of dental treatment, it may lead to a hypertensive crisis, stroke or myocardial infarction

cocaine or methamphetamine

64

Is a condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by thyroid gland

Hyperthyroidism

65

Patient may develop this with hyperthyroidism if vasoconstrictors are used

Thyrotoxicosis

66

What is thyrotoxicosis more commonly known as

thyroid storm

67

Absolute contraindications to the use of vasoconstrictors

-Blood pressure greater than 180/110 mmHG
-Within 6mo. after heart attack or stroke
-Serve cardiovascular disease
-Daily episodes of angina pectoris or unstable (preinfarction) angina
-Cardiac dysrhythmias despite appropriate therapy
-Whithin 6mo of coronary artery bypass surgery

68

uncontrolled hyperthyroidism is an absolute contraindication to vasoconstrictors because of the possibility of causing

thyroid crisis

69

allergy to what should not receive a local anesthetic agent containing vasoconstrictors

Sulfites

70

Inherited syndrome triggered by exposure to certain drugs used for general anesthesia and the neuromuscular blocking agent succinylcholine

Malignant hyperthermia

71

what are clinical signs of methemoglobinemia

cyanosis of the lips and mucous membranes

72

the dental hygienist must determine the maximum dose of injectable local anesthetic based on

the treatment to be delivered and the health status of the patient

73

Why do you aspirate

To prevent intravenous injection IV

74

The most common and efficient method of obtaining a medical/dental history in the dental office is by

Printed questionnaire filled out by pt followed by a dialogue history

75

Two or more drug given at the same time or in the same day

Concomitant

76

What is an adults respiratory rate per min

12-20

77

What is an adult normal pulse rate

60-100

78

What usually causes dental phobia

Traumatic
, difficult, and/or painful dental experience

79

Esther Wilkins

American dental hygienist and dentist and author of the first comprehensive book of dental hygiene

80

What instrument was named after Esther Wilkins

Wilkins/tufts explorer

81

Considered the most potent of the topical anesthesia

Tetracaine hydrochloride