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Flashcards in exam 2 Deck (49)
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1

Which 2 local anesthetics have least vasodilator?

mepivicane and prilocaine

2

what is the longest lasting local anesthetic?

bupivicaine

3

what does maximum recommended doseage depend on?

patients health

4

what local anesthetic has the shortest half life?

articaine

5

trade names for articaine?

zorcaine
septocaine
articadent

6

trade names for bupivicaine?

marcaine
vivacaine
bupivicaine

7

trade names for lidocaine?

lidocaine
xylocaine
octocaine
lignospan

8

trade names for mepivicane?

carbocaine
prolocaine
mepivicane
isocaine
scandonest

9

trade names for prilocaine?

citanest
citanest forte

10

when is local anesthetic with no vasoconstrictor contraindicated?

on a patient who has had open heart surgery within the past 6 months

11

absolute contraindication of local anesthetic with vasoconstrictor ?

uncontrolled diabetes

12

when a peeing is sulfite allergy what should be avoided?

vasoconstrictors (levonordefeine)

13

when a patient is allergic to wine, dry fruit, or chips... what should be avoided?

vasoconstrictor

14

what is added to solution to prevent oxidation?

vasoconstrictor preservative
(sodium bisulfite)

15

what is added to solution to prevent bacterial growth?

methylparabine

16

generic name for prilocaine

prilocaine

17

trade names for bupivicaine

marcaine and vivicaine

18

allergic reactions for local anesthetics are people with?

sulfite allergies- 1 percent is a true allergy

19

this means to use anesthetic with care or watch

relative contraindication

20

main advantage of topical anesthetic

site specific

21

what should be done before administration of LA?

review health history

22

other absolute contraindications if LA with vasoconstrictor

uncontrolled BP
by pass surgery
open heart surgery within 6 months

23

what can be tried to reduce BP?

nitrous oxides

24

what does prilocaine effect?

oxygen levels

25

what is used for congestive heart failure because of arrhythmias with epinephrine?

digitalis glycosides

26

why would vasoconstrictor be an absolute contraindication to someone with hyperthyroidism?

uncontrolled

27

standard LA cartridge contains how much anesthetic?

1.8 mL

except articaine (1.7 mL)

28

what is the main factor of a problem using LA if it is not working

check for vasoconstrictor

29

when should you use little anesthetic as possible?

kids, elderly or people with any health problems

30

if a pt has been given 2 cartridges of LA and it isn’t working what should be done?

readminister and adjust technique

31

how is MRD tested?

on animals and humans and then approved by FDA

32

what considerations are important when selecting LA?

duration of pain control
need for post op pain control
pt health and current medications
allergies
need for hemostasis

33

these provide pulpal anesthia for approx 30 minutes and no not contain vasoconstrictor

short acting LA

2% lidocaine
3% mepivicane
4% prilocaine

34

these types of LA provide pulpal anesthesia for approx 60 minutes and contain vasoconstrictor except 4% prilocaine when admin as nerve block

intermediate acting

2% lidocaine, 1:50,000 epi
2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epi
2% mepivicane, 1:20,000 levonordefrin
4% prilocaine
4% prilocaine 1:200,000 epi
4% articaine 1:100,000 or 1:200,000 epi

35

long lasting LA provides pulpal anesthesia for how long

90+ minutes

bupivicaine 0.5%, 1:200,000 epi

36

means the administration of offending drug may be used judiciously

relative contraindication

37

means the offending drug should not be administered to the individual under any circumstance

absolute contraindication

38

what may cause allergic reactions of a LA?

containing sodium bisulfite or meta bisulfite

39

other than LA, where are sulfates used?

prevent wine from fermentation and oxidation

preservative in dried fruit or potato products

40

what may influence the type and volume of anesthetic or vasoconstrictor a patient may safely receive?

cardiovascular disease
hepatic disease
hyperthyroidism
brittle diabetes
allergies
tricyclic antidepressants
cimetidine
non selective beta blockers

41

what provides better bleeding control?

epinephrine

42

most commonly used La in dentistry

lidocaine

43

what is a good alternative if a vasoconstrictor is contraindicated??

mepivicane

44

what variety are topical anesthetics available in?

gel
ointment
spray
cream
liquid
lozenge

45

what can help identify an anxious patient?

observing the patients posture, body movements, speech patterns and skin

46

clinical signs of moderate anxiety

unnaturally stuff posture
nervous play
white knuckle syndrome
perspiration on forehead and hands
overwillingness to cooperate with clinician
nervous conversation
quick answers

47

another name for thyrotoxicosis

thyroid storm

48

inherited syndrome triggered by exposure to certain drugs for general anesthesia and the neuromuscular blocking agent succinylcholine

malignant hyperthermia

49

what triggers bronchospasms?

using vasoconstrictor on a patient with asthma or with bisulfite allergy