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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (54):
1

Four-field approach

The traditional approach of American Anthropology that divides the study of anthro into the four fields of archaeological, biological, cultural, and linguistic anth

2

Geisteswissenschaften

Translated "human sciences," including anth; contrasted w/ Naturwissenshaften

3

Naturwissenschaften

Translated "Natural scinces

4

idiographic

Pertaining to a particularizing approach to description and explanation; contrasted with nomothetic

5

nomothetic

Generalizing

6

Salvage Ethnography

Ethnography motivated by the need to obtain information about cultures threatened with extinction or assimilation

7

Super Organic

the idea that culture is distinct from and "above" biology
emphatic statement of importance of environment over heredity, nurture over nature or culture over biology (Alfred Kroeber)

8

Structuralism

In British social anth, the synchronic concern w/ social structure, sometimes called social morphology; in french structural ant, the concer w/ the elementary forms of minds and cultures

9

Structure of the conjuncture

Marshall Sahlins's phrase describing the place of intersection between different cultural structures, where contingency produces historical change

10

psychological anthropology

Anth concerned w/ relationship btwn cultures and personalities

11

Participant-observation

the style of anthropological fieldwork requiring the fieldworker to see things from both the "native" and the fieldworker's points of view

12

National Character

According to certain psychological anthropologists, the dominant personality of a nation

13

Kula ring

A cultural and economic exchange network among inhabitants of the Trobriand Islands, studied by Bronislaw Malinowski

14

Manchester School

A coterie of anthropologists trained under Max Gluckman at Manchester University in the 1950s and 1960s

15

French structural anthropology

The theoretical orientation of Claude Levi-strauss and his followers, invoking elementary mental structures, reciprocity, and binary oppositions

16

Functionalism

In British social anthropology, either Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown's theory of how parts of a society contribute to the whole society or Bronislaw Malinowski's theory of how culture responds to biological needs in a hierarchically organized way

17

cultural relativism

The proposition that cultural differences should not be judged by absolute standards

18

culture-at-a-distance

The study of cultures w/o the benefit of fieldwork, practised by American psychological anthropologists in the era of WWII

19

colonial encounter

the historical encounter btwn European colonizers and the indigenous ppls of the world, who were then often marginalized or opressed by colonialism

20

British Social anthropology

The School of structuralism and functionalism led b Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown and Bronislaw Malinowski

21

Franz Boas (6)

1)Father of American Anthropology
born and educated in 2)Germany-doctorate in physics (optical properties of color)
3)Curator of the (new) Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
4)Principally a cultural anthropologists,,but,,,
5)Published more than 700 books and articles
6)helped est: American Anthropological Association and journal, American Anthropologist

22

Boasian

Focus on Native Americans (Salvage anthropology)
Field-work based and focused on particulars not laws
Initiates a turn towards human interiority (personality, psyche, (ab)normalitiy)

23

The Boasians

Enthnography and Anth students:
Robert Lowie UC Berkley
Alfred Kroeber UC Berkley
Melvile Herskovits; North western University
E. Adamson Hoebel, legal anth

Psychological Anth
Ruth Benedict
Margaret Mead

American Indian Studies
Alexander Goldenweiser
Paul Radin
Clark Wissler

Anthropological Linguistics
Edward Sapir

24

Boasian "School"

-Boas seen as father of amer. anth. not necessarily school of thought bc it was more of a critique of 19th c theory rather than formulation of new theory

boas was an ardent empiricist

emphasis on salvage ethnography

critical of comparative method

protested that "nobody was living in the Stone Age"

25

Robert Lowie

-Critical of Lewis Henry Morgan's cultural evolutionary approach
-rejected extreme views of diffusionism
-no ONE determinant of culture
-Lowie "program of anht" consisted of undoing enthnographic analyses of cultural evolutionists and redoing them in framework of boasian historical particularism

26

Robert Lowie's Book

Primitive Society
Published exactly 50 yrs after LHM's ancient society

27

Alfred Kroeber

-First love was literature
-dissertation-study of patterns, configuration, of American Native style
-Diverged from Boas--in promoting concept of SUPERORGANIC
-Emphasized cultural patterns, or TRENDS, over cultural laws that determine behavior [chose fashion as focus]
-after configurations of culture growth he retreated from the concept of the super organic and returend to the boasian fold

28

Kroeber's contributions

Anthropology
Handbook of the Indians of California
Configurations of Culture Growth

29

ISHI

1911, was found in Northern California wilderness. Last known member of the Yana group
-died of TB 1916
-brain was removed
-Kroeber entered a period of professional self-doubt

30

Ishi in Two Worlds: A Biography of the Last Wild Indian in North America

Published by Kroeber's wife due to the fact that he rarely spoke of his time with ishi

31

Margaret Mead

-student of benedict and boas
-most famous anthropologist of the 20th c
-explores socialization processes; connection to family; girls' social life (incluiding sexual practices)
-huge commercial success/spokesperson for liberal causes/tolerance and understanding

32

Mead's publication

Coming of Age in Somoa

33

Coming of Age in Somoa

sexually permissive as girls -- thus, adolescence not troubled by hereditary nature
-inference- if americans adopted a more permissive attitude towards sex, amer. adolecscents would be less troubled
-no period of "storminess" in somoan adolescence

34

Derek Freeman

-discredited meads wrk
-said she was niave and mehtodologically superficial

-he found somoan culture is puritanical (not permissive)
-ex the virginity of the mature unwed woman (taupo) is highly ritually safeguarded (thus promiscuity would be unlikely)
-adolescence is just as stormy comparitively

35

implications of freeman's wrk

-undermined the nurture-argument about human psychosocial development in favor of sociobiological one
-a perspective tracing determinative links btwn bio and cult
-it reframed the difficulties of adolescence as parat of a universal stage of human psychosocila development

36

Paul Shankman

-clash of personalities, scholarly orientations, and political agendas
-both kinda right; 20 intervening yrs of christian conversian may ave played a role
-recognizes meads mistakes and exaggerations

37

Ruth Benedict

-studied literature at Vassar, taught high school, like mead--abandoned aspirations to be a commercial poet and writer
-turned towards anth to give her life meaning
-did fieldwork under KROEBER -- returned to columbia to teach w/ boas
-GESTALT- each cult had its own personality and configuration

38

Benedict publications

Patterns of culture (drawing from Friedrich Nietzsche)
- 3 cultures 1. kwakiutl of pacific NW (Dionysian) 2. zuni of amer. sw (apollonian) 3 dobuans of s pacific (paranoid)
-during WWII, worked for amer. fed govt (cult-at-a-distance-studies)==chrysanthemum and the sword

39

Boas academic influnces

-suffered prejudice as a jew in christian surroundings
-determined to shape anth-- academic discipline to demonstarte to world how race, language, and cult are causally unlinked
-cephalic index
-social activist- WWI, denoucned 4 unnamed anths as amer spies --AAA censured him, not recinded until 2004
- influenced by neo-kantian sw school of ger philosophy
8experience filtered through innate categories of the mind
-NATUR an dGEIST schaftedn
-mental phenomena, core of human existence, only IDIOGRAPHIC, and descriptions of paraticular events
CULTURAL RELATIVISM

40

Lessons learned from Mead-Freeman

1. differential access for men an dwomen ethnographers makes a difference
2. research subjects may come to care deeply about how they are potrayed in anth
3. the nature/nurture debate may not be the best way to think about human psychological development

41

Need to Learn

• Marvin Harris
• Marcel Mauss
• Claude Levi-Strauss
• Edmund Leach
• Marshall Sahlins
• A.R. Radcliffe-Brown
• Brownislaw Malinowski
• E.E. Evans-Pritchard
• Max Gluckman
• Fred Eggan
• Ely Parker
• John Lubbock
• Edward Burnett Tylor
• James Frazer
• Captain James Cook

42

Max Gluckman

Rituals of Rebellion in SouthEast
Africa [1963]
• In the Swazi incwala ritual analyzed by Gluckman,
why does political rebellion not lead to political
revolution?
• What role does catharsis play in Gluckman’s analysis
of rituals of rebellion?
• Could the attempt to impeach former United States
president Bill Clinton be seen as a ritual of rebellion
(in Gluckman’s sense of the term)?

43

E. E evans pritchard

Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic Among the Azande
Oxfordf social anth prof

44

Marcel mauss

durks nephew and student

45

strauss

guru of fr scoial anth
elementary structure of kinship
structural anth theory
ex. life vs death cult vs nature self vs other

46

edmund leech

Ø Anglo-American scholarship /disconnect with French
Structuralism
Ø Literal and figurative translation of language and theory
Ø Political Systems of Highland Burma (1954)

47

MARY DOUGLAS

was a British anthropologist, known for her writings on human culture and symbolism, whose area of speciality was social anthropology.
Purity and Danger, Natural Symbols, Cultural theory of risk

48

Marxists

Structural Marxists (1960s debates)
Maurice Godelier & Jonathan Friedman – 1970s

49

Leech

Structuralism in Social
Anthropology [1972]
• In what ways is structural anthropology like structural
linguistics? In what ways is it different?
• Leach makes an analogy between the structures
produced by structural anthropologists and the music
produced by an orchestra. What are some other
analogies?
• The biblical Old Testament recounts the myth of the
creation of Adam and Eve, their sin, and their
banishment from the Garden of Eden. How could this
myth be analyzed structurally?

50

Marshil

Use of Structuralism
Ø Well known application to colonial encounters in the Pacific
Ø “Islands of History” (1985)
Ø British Royal Navy Officer, Captain James Cook’s death in 1779
Ø
Ø
Ø Structure of the Conjunction:

51

Radcliffe

rivers student
"cambridge school"
chair of chiacago
influence by boasian lowie and eggan
sought more scientific basis for anth
how ritual activity and dif social inst (kinship) across "primitive' socieiteis

52

durkeheim

mechanical and organic solidarity

53

bronislaaw mal

polish trained at london school of econ
trobrian islands
PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION KULA RING

54

mal pub

argoraus of hte pacific
a diary in the strict sense of the term