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Flashcards in Important Contributions Deck (60):
1

Thomas Aquinas

Voyages; Native peoples were imperfect humans, therefore natural slaves

2

Monogenesis

humankind evolved from 2 ancestors

3

Rene Descartes

Scientific Revolution; used deduction epistemology to create cartesian numbers and duality of the world

4

Epistemology

Branch of Philosophy that explores the nature of Knowledge (How we know what we know)

5

Epistemology contains 2 categories

Deduction and Induction

6

Francis Bacon

Laid foundation for enlightenment; British Emperialism, advocate of scientific method and revolution

7

British Emperialism

Experience and observations are methods of gaining knowledge

8

French Rationalism

Opinions and actions based on reason rather than on religious beleifs or emotions

9

Copernicus

Sun is center of universe

10

Galleio

astronomy

11

Newton

"Principles of Mathematics"

12

John Locke

British empirialism; "an essay concerning human understanding"

13

Joseph Lafilau

"customs of american savages compared with those of earliest times"

14

Jean-Jacques Rosseas

humanity was happier in the past

15

Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

3 stages of humanity: Hunting, Pastoralism, Farming

16

Adam Ferguson, WIlliam Roberston, John Miller

Believed technology and economics determined civilizations. 3 stages: Savagery, Barbarianism, Civilization

17

Universal historians

proposed stages of development

18

Materialism

human existence determined by sonciousness

19

Karl Marx

Communist Maifesto; studied pilosophiy and law; econ and polisci---leaned towards utopian

20

Fredrich Engels

Communist manifesto; Textile agency; Influenced by people living on streets and england working class

21

Napolean

nationalism ideology; instead of universal outlook on khumankind

22

august comte

multibolume work: course of positive phiolosophy.... stages of knowledge: theological, metaphysical and positive.... believed science was search for generalizations.... social dyanmics vs social statics..... creator of positivism

23

Lewis Henry Morgan

grand global evolution schema---patrilineal decent; religon, houselife, property

24

Edward Burnett Tylor

Father of Modern Anthropology; how instituations develop and influence religion.... effected classical evolutionists

25

Herbert Spencer

Father of Sociology; believed societies emerged from people's actions

26

Clark Wissler

First to draw cultural areas/zones

27

Cultural areas

geo areas with particular cultural based on language, religion, material culture; artifacts move between people

28

psychic unity

all people, regardless of genetics or race, have equal opportunity for change; adolf bastain

29

Fredrich Ratzel

German race homeland; Leben sraum living space

30

independent invention

cultural innovation can occur independently in more than one place

31

diffusionism

culture innovation evolve and are acquired trough borrowing and migrating

32

heliocentrism

sun centerdness; cultures that worship the sun......... example of diffusionism bc happened once in egypt and if new world had it then it was acquired and not naturall developed

33

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Lamark

Long necked vs short necked giraffes; before darwin

34

People before darwin

Georges-Louis Leclerc, comte de button
erasmus darwin
lamarck

35

Key 19th c developments

Evolution
Scientific Revolution (before newtons time)
Geology

36

James Hutton

"theory of the Earth" and "No Vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end"

37

Charles Lyell

"Principles of Geology" --- Foundation of modern geology
"Geographical Evolutionist"

38

Thomas Robert Matthus

"An Essay on the Principle Population"

39

Alfred Russell Wallace

Evolution by natural selection

40

Neptunism

Scientific theory of geology proposed rocks formed from the crstallisation of minerals in the early earths oceans; abraham gottlob werner

41

Plutonism or volcanism

geo theory that the igenous rocks forming the earth originated from intrusive magmatic activity; jaems hutton and abbe anton moro

42

uniformitarianism

assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the univesre now have always operated in the univers in the past

43

catastrophism

the theory that the earth had largely been shaped by sudden, short-lived , violent events, possibly worldwide in scope

44

Darwin

Origin of species
Evolution and natural selection
Science v christianity
Great debates of the day: Geology fossils formed in water but found on land
took uniform and catas and made comperensive teory of biological evolution

45

Carolus Linneas

swedish biologist, classified living things into hierachy; taxonomy

46

Darwin's view on humans vs animals

Humans have culture and society and its changes overtime

47

Sigmund Frued

Austrich Nuerologist, clinical ideas were important and hold value but is interpretations were disproven
foundign father of psychoanalysis
Aligned with anthro bc of his attempts to define human behavior and culture
interested in dreams and subconciousness
repression of sexual desire results in disorders relating to cultural society

48

Emile Durkheim

Distinguished 19th c french sociologist; forerunner of 2 european schools: french structural anth an dbritish social anth
resurgance of antionalism and catholicism

49

Emile Durkheim contributions

Division of labor in society
the elementary forms of the religious life

50

Division of Labor in Society

diversification and intergration of culture in 2 patterns...

1. primitive, less diversified--little ddivision of labor--cohered bc indv were similar

2. civilized, more diversified, considerable division of labor--cohered bc indv were different (organic solidarity)-the more organic the more govt was needed to regulate society

51

The elementary forms of the religous life

purpose to expose the social origins of religion which ultimately was origin of society itself
experience of effervescence when interacting with others
totems
sacred and profaine contrast

52

origin

source in the group mind

53

sacred and profaine

beyond life
natural state of being

54

totems

embodied effervescence sensations thus powerful represenations that print powerful sentiments to the surface of consiousness even in the absence of ritual

55

effervescence

gas escaping from liquid

56

Lennin

SU Marxism; social memory; Power.. he was ideological and intellectual force with a social memory to him and memoraliziation

57

Max Weber

Credited with viewing the holistic individual-acting thinking feeling as central to the creations, maintenance and innovation of social and cultural forms
idealisticwhich contrasted with materialism
sought a theory that placed existing beliefs and structures in a particular historical context
often thought of as a multi-evolutionsit
theory accounts for great diversity of human life but doesn't rank it according to eurocentric scope of norms and values
that of expectation (what IS as opposed to what SHOULD BE) is embodied and expressed trough an explicityly religous frame work

58

Fredinand de saussurer

huge figure in linguistics
one of the most important precursors to 20thc linguistic and cultural anth
also on of least celebrated figures
founding father of modern disipline of ling
multilingual brilliant young scholar; who study phsycis and chemistry
3 consec lectures on "general linguistics" largely unpublsied during life
focused on what is language rather than temporal language through time
speech communicates ideas
language as a system of signs

59

language as signs

2 distinct elements

1. signifier that which communicates meaning and 2. the concept communicated by sigifier

60

relational vs systemic language

relational is understanding snow hail and sleet

systemic is quality of language and tree and arbor meean same thing meow is word sound.

signs not fixed ;; inuits have omre signs for snow