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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (108):
1

Emic

In theories including cultural materialism, the epistemological perspective of the investigated, or “the insider point of view”

2

Etic

In theories including cultural materialsim, the epistemological perspective of the investigator, or "the outsider point of view"

3

Phonemics

The study of linguistic meaning created by sounds

4

Phonetics

The study of linguistic sounds that create meaning

5

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

The proposition of Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf that the structure of language conditions the nature of cultural meaning

believed cult is carried in people's heads as a classificatory logic that creates meaning

6

Cultural neo-evolutionism

Twentieth-century cultural evolutionism, a revival and reformulation of classical cultural evolutionism

7

New Archaeology (Processual Archaeology)

The nomothetic (generalizing) archaeology advocated by Lewis Binford

8

White's Thermodynamic Law

(E x T > P), or energy times technology yields cultural product, the nomotehtic basis of Leslie White's culturology

9

Modern Cultural Ecology

Julian Steward
The examination of interactions between cultural and environmental variables

Nomothetic approach to anth > articulation btwn cult and nature

10

Unilineal evolution

Pertaining to the view that cultural evolution proceeds along the same lines everywhere, as in classical cultural evolution

11

Multilineal Evolution

Cultural Neo-evolutionism; According to Max Weber, culture change occurring in fits and starts in different historical contexts; according to Julian Steward, "branching" cultural evolution

12

postcolonialism

The anthropological study of how the legacy of colonialism has altered both the former colonizing and the former colonized states

13

Cultural Materialism

The theory of Marvin Harris that distinguishes emic from etic perspectives and mental from behavioral domains, and that advocates infrastructural determinism.

14

Infrastructural determinism

In Marvin Harris's theory of cultural materialism, the name for the belief that culture change usually begins in the etic infrastructure

15

The New Physical Anthropology

The name for physical anth committed to the synthetic theory of evolution

16

Behavioral Genetics

The branch of genetics that investigates inherited contributions to behavioral differences

17

Sociobiology

An investigation of the biological basis of social behavior using the evolutionary principles of kin selection and inclusive fitness

18

Symbolic Anthropology

The anthropological school, associated w/ Victor Turner, espousing the view that social solidarity is a fxn of the systems of symbolic logic that connect ppl

19

Cargo cults

Melanesian religious revitalization movements that anticipate and celebrate the future return of material affluence

20

"thick description"

In the interpretive anthropology of Clifford Geertz, the process of interpreting culture as text

21

transactionalism

The anthropological theory of Fredrik Barth that focuses on the decision making and economic-maximizing strategies of individuals; similar to symbolic interationism

22

Synthetic Theory of Evolution

The twentieth-century theoretical synthesis of Darwinian evolutionism and Mendelian Genetics

23

Ethnolinguistics

the name for linguistically oriented research methods of cognitive anthropology

24

ehtnoscience

a term for the collection of methods used in cognitive anthropology

sought to make emic orientation explicit

inspired by linguistics--sought to improve methodological rigor

25

Cognitive anthropology

The school concerned with folk taxonomies and semantic domains as practised in ethnolinguistics and by ethnoscientists in the New Ethnograpy

Rooted in Boasian cult relativism and anth ling
Emic theoretical orientation

26

Symbolic interacionism

a sociological theory, associated with Talcott Parsons, that focuses on the decision-making strategies of indvs in social sitatuions

27

Cognitive anthropology

The school concerned with folk taxonomies and semantic domains as practised in ethnolinguistics and by ethnoscientists in the New Ethnograpy

28

Anthropological Feminism

The perspective that feminist views should remain relatively autonomous in anthropology

29

Developments in symbolic and interpretive Anth in Britian

-Concerns over Durkheiian structuralism and structural fxnalism--static nature of analysis
-lack of focus on flexible charactersitcs of social and cultureal role in social and political change cross culturally

30

Devel. in Symbolic and interp. anth in USA

-Boasian-inspired framework culture and personality and cognitive schoolsinadequate
1. were ethnocentrically biased (esp. universal importance of indv psyche)
2. schematically rigid, unable to address important theoretical problem of social an dcultural change

31

Max Weber's influence

Importance of meanig and the human potential to act creatively in the world (human agency)
-Structralist theory culture constrained or controlled people more than served or enabled them

32

Wilhelm Kilthey

Neo-kantian philosophy; distinction between natural science and social sciences

33

Edmund Husserl

Natural science unsuitable for study of cultural life-bc cult life has meaning which is best understood subjectively as "lived experience"

34

Symbolic and interpretive anthropologies

social and cult life is held 2gether by interpenetrating network of symbols, each of which is a carrier of cult meaning

35

Victor Turner

Symbols in Ndembu Ritual

Anthropologists can achieve a better interpretation of ritual symbols than can participants in the rituals

36

Clifford Geertz

Thick Description: Toward Interpretive Theory of Culture

Interpretive anth--ethnographic truth lies only with native members of culture; deeper we go less anthropologists understand

37

Karl Popper

individual social agent (actor) “linchpin” in creation and maintenance of social
relationships

38

Transactionalism ex

Political leadership amound Swat Pathans; models of social organization

-beyond structural fxnalism by revisiting nation of the indv as basic usocial life

--decision-making strategies adopted by indv. living in a pparticular political arena

-structural systems of norms and values are created and sustained through economic interests of indvs

39

Post Processual Archaeology

-Interpretative perspective
-Disenchantment with Binfords New archaeology scientific approach
-New trend: archaeology allied with “historical analysis” – holistic
explanation/ symbolic
dimension/artifact “materiality” – reflects social relations

40

Ian Hodder

Standford University

Symbolism in Action:
Ethnoarchaeological Studies of
Material Culture (1982); Reading the
Past: Current Approaches to
Interpretation in Archaeology (1986)
– Contextual archaeology (after M focault)- artifacts embedded in a web of cultural "discourse" that affirms social relations and enhances power of privleged groups
-Pure posiivist scientific objectivity-unattainable and undesireabel goal
-paved way to more culturally sensitive critiques

41

Michael Focault

Contextual archaeology

42

Contextual archaeology

artifacts embedded in a web of cultural "discourse: that forms social relations and enhances power of privileged groups

43

Peter Worsley

The trumpet shall sound [Cargo Cults of indonesia and new guinea, charismatic prophets]

incorporation of weber's synthesis of materialism and idealism

44

Anthony F.C. Wallace

The death and rebirth of the seneca [charismatic prophets- new religous world views]

45

Edward O. Wilson

Sociobiology landmark book: The New Synthesis

46

Richard Dawkins

Study sociobiology:
The Selfish Gene

47

Robert Trivers

Sociobiology--Concept of reciprocal altruism

48

Napoleon Chagnon

used sociobiology to explain outcome of matings among south american yanomamo indians

49

Sociobiology notes

Harvard entomologist, evolutionary problem of altruism (self sacrificing behaviors), worker ants--queen ants

-mechanism of kin selection/ genetic basis o fmost behavior is polygenic (multiple genes)

-widespread criticism from cult anths

-became prominent in primatology

50

Julian Steward

"Father" of modern cultural ecology

Cultural Neo-evolutionism

Linked anth to nomothetic natural sciences such as biology, demography and chem

"cultural area" concept

Published seminal essay on economic and social basis of bands

distanced himself from White's ideas of unilineal evo by focusing on multi ev

Created revision of ealier boasian approches > Potlatch on NW coast, benedict (wasteful drive for status) vs Codere and suttles (ecological adaptive/redistributive)

51

Influenced by Julian Steward

M. Fried
A. Vayda
E. Wolf
E. Service

52

White and Steward

sparred for yrs over differences on cult ev

53

Marshall Sahlins and Elman Service

Evolution and culture

sought to reconcile views of steward and white

argued 2 dimensions operating:
-Demonstrated that White and Steward were
complementary rather than antagonistic.
-Worked 10 years together at Michigan together with
White – formed a powerful evolutionary triumvirate,
the “Michigan School”

54

The Michigan school

powerful evolutionary triumvirate


assoc with sahlins and service

55

White

Cultural neo-evolutionism

general evolution- long range evolutionary progress and trends

56

Steward

specific evolution - explanation of local adaptation was analogous to darwin's mechanism of nat selection

57

Betty Meggers

New archaeology

Student of White

applied thermodynamic formula to archaeology (if Technology known and Environment -- cultural Product could be "reconstructed"

58

Lewis Binford

New arch

White's student

continued Meggers ideas-became the leader of the New Arch of the 1960s

sought "explanation" of processes -- offer generaliztions abt cult systems and cult ev

rejected concept of cult as "shared values" (eg psychologically oriented students of Boas)

argued that arcaeologists should be trained ethnologists - to learn how artifacts fxn in the present and then to "read" such fxns back in time

aimed to make arch more scientific

59

hypothetico-deductive model

utilized by binford

(Carl G. Hempel, philosopher of science)

a philosophical model for scientific explanation used in the new arch

60

Great man theory of history

the theory that indv affect the course of history more than do historical circumstances

rejected by binford

61

Marvin Harris

Developed Cultural Materialism

Important books: The Nature of Cultural Things; The Rise of Anthropological Theory; Cultural Materialism; Theories of Culture in Postmodern Times

62

Cult Materialism

where does truen knowledge reside?

2 pairs of cross-cutting epistemological criteria: Mental vs. behavioral domans and emic vs etic domains

emic belongs to participant/etic belongs to the observer

63

4 key epistemological perspectives

1/2 emic behavioral/mental

3/4 etic behavioral/mental

64

Harris's scheme

Culture changes first in etic infrastructure > reverberates through etic structure and super structure> then affects emic superstructure

65

Marvin Harris publication

The Epistemology of Cultural Materialism

Claims all knowledge is ultimately emic convincing

Washington Post-- "a storm center in his field" --lasting legacy??

66

Ethology

Study of animal behavior in the understanding that it sheds light on the innateness of certain human behaviors

Lionel Tiger and Robin Fox

67

Carl G. Hempel

Hypothetico-deductive model for scientific explanation

68

Biologized Anth

Lat 20th c

-Nature v Nuture

-influence of darwinianism
-Rise of biological anth (Physical anth)
-Bioloogy of behavior

69

Bio of behavior

-inc. interest
-Human aggression, territoriality, and sexuality > genetic?
-Race and racism
-Arthur Jensen and Charles Murray

70

Arthur Jensen

Proposed variation in intelligence quotient (IQ)

71

Charles Murray

"The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life"

72

The New Physical Anth

• Bringing cultural and physical anthropology closer
together
• 1950s: New Cultural Evolutionism/ New
Archaeology/ New Physical Anthropology
• Sherwood L. Washburn

73

Sherwood L. Washburn

emphasized Synthetic Theory of Evolution (Darwinism and Mendelian genetics)

74

Kenneth Pike

Cognitive Anth

made analogy with contrast btwn phonemics and phonetics in linguistics

75

Edward Sapir

linguist, Yale cofounded anth dept

The unconscious Patterning of Behavior in Society (1972)
-patterns of social behavior are unconscious
-can you explain how you constructed the last sentence you spoke

76

Benjamin Lee Whorf

worked for an insurance company in Hartford

77

New ethnography

sought to make emic orientation explicit

inspired biy linguistics--sought to improve methodological rigor

sought to descreibe native cognition or perception

78

cognitive anthropologists

shared view that cult is a formal system of rules for thought and behavior

79

4 Key anth in cult neo-ev

Leslie White
Julian Steward
Marshall Sahlins
Elman Service

80

Leslie white

Anthropologist trained in Boasian tradition, broke rank
during career at University of Michigan
• Marxist orientation made him controversial figure –
FBI investigation
• Considered culture to be a system of its own kind, sui
generis, similar to Kroeber’s “superorganic” concept
• Lynchpin of system was thermodynamics, study of
conversion of forms of energy in the universe.

Layer cake model of culture

81

White publication

Energy and Tools

82

Sally Slocum

Woman the Gatherer: Male Bias in Anth

-anth and disciplines alike are shaped significantly by the questions they ask

83

Judith Butler

Performative Acts and Gender Constitution

-relationship btwn material bodies and "certain cult and historical possibilities" which contribute to teh creation of gender

-believes gender as "the legacy of sedimented acts"

-terms such as "woman" and "feminist" been naturalized and work against political goals

84

R.W. Connell

Masculinities in Recent World History

85

Lyons and Lynos

The New Anthropology of Sexuality

-"zero point of progress" discussing early, often racist perspectives in anth

-"privileged silence"

86

Andre Gunder Frank

Political Economy

Development and underdevelopment theory

critique of modernization

87

Political Economy

An anthropological perspective viewing sociocultural form at the local level as penetrated and influnced by global capitalism

88

modernization

The western practice of transforming non-capitalist, preindustrial economies into capitalist industrial eocnomies

89

World System theory

Immanuel Wallerstein's theory that core nation states are engaged in the systematic exploitation of peripheral nation states of labor and natural resources

90

Immanuel Wallerstien

The Modern World System (1980)

Political econ

World system theory

Ethnographically

91

Robert Redfield

University of Chicago

distinguished between "great" and "little" traditions, foreshadowing some insights of anth political econ

92

Great vs little tradition

Great- literate, religious and urban

little- oral, magical and rural

93

Michael Taussig

The Devil and Commodity Fetishism in South America (1980)

it is the local culture, rather than the doctrines of indust capitalism, that creates meaning out of an encouter btwn radically different societies

inequities of capitalism are the subject of citical evaluation by poor laboureres, who empoly the judeo-christian devil as a moral commentary on a system of economic relations over which they have little or no control

94

Eric Wolf

Europe and the People w/o History (1982)

Influenced by Steward

"people without history"

study of economic divorced study of politics

95

Edward Said

Orientalism (1979)
Knowing the Oriental

Forerunner of Public Anthropology

96

Orientalism

the West's patronizing representations of "The East" --the societies and peoples who inhabit the places of Asia, North Africa, and the middle east

tied to imperialist societies

97

Thomas Kuhn

The structure of scientific revolutions (1962)
-argued that science is largely conventional, consisting of answers to qustions that scientists agree are appropriate to ask at a particular time and place

called the intellectual framework for nomral science a "paradigm" and the process of scientific revolution a "paradigm shift."

Paul Feyerabend argued there is no logicl way to choose btwn paradigms bc all explanations are inevitably interpretations

concept of paradigms

98

Michel Foucault publication

the brith of the asylum

99

Pierre Bourdieu publication

The peculiar history of scientific reason

100

Pierre Bourdieu
and Michael foucault

Postmodernity

attempt to do away with "false dichotomy" btwn social statics and change, or structure and agency

Enlightenment

distinctive perspectiveobjectivity

101

Foucault

discourse of power that shape relations btwn ppl

show how power determines different social form thorugh history

102

Foucault

discourse of power that shape relations btwn ppl

show how power determines different social form thorugh history

103

pierre bourdieu

doxa fields habitus practice

the production and reproduction of legitmate language

104

Medical ANth

Esp. in amer. anth

ethnomedical systems

allopathic biomedicine under scrutiny--building off of foucault: nancy and marg "critical med anth" view medicine as having an ideological component. MOre than a set of insights about how to diagnose and treat

105

feminist anth

attributed to the advent of new, progressive or radicalized political and social agendas

argue that more powerful and inclusive understandin goff society and cult can be achieved only by studying cult representatiosn of experience of, and practices assoc. with, women

106

Desmond MOrris

The Naked Ape

attributed all kinds of uman characteristics to evolved bipedal locomotion

107

Carleton coon

biological anthropologist

The Origin of Races (19304_

proposed that five major geographical races of the species homo sapines had originated in the species homo erectus and evolved into homo sap sepratioly

caucasoid race achieving apiens status first and the negroid race last

scientific racism

108

Sherwood L. Washburn

Launched New Physical Anth

biological anth

urgd biological anth to embrace the synthetic theory of ev