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Flashcards in exam 2 Deck (33):

evolutionary psychology

main purpose is to pass on our genes


criteria men look for in a mating partner

-young, fertile
- youthful face, breast, hour glass figure


criteria women look for in mating partner

- high status
- resources
- man who will provide for and protect


criticisms of evolutionary psychology

1. do they make claims about people they can no longer study?
2. do they over simplify men and women?
3. does it ignore the effects of culture?


definition of sex

sex is the biological differences between men and women


definition of gender

gender is what you claim to be; an individuals concept of themselves


how do males and females differ?

- men want to pass on their genes, sleep with as many women as possible to increase the chance, and they are more attracted to appearance
- women worry about getting pregnant, having to raise the child, being less mobile and finding a man to provide and protect them. women are careful when selecting a mate and are more attracted to resources


social norms

- norms that are defined as the standards of behavior and expectations of behavior held by members of society or the group
- North Americans are more punctual than Latin Americans


Asch Conformity study

- 7 men judged line lengths, 6 confederates and 1 participant
- on occasion the 6 men would purposely say the wrong answer to see if participant would conform to their response even thought it was clearly wrong


startling results of Asch conformity study

- 12/18 gave the wrong answer
- 37% agreed with the wrong answer
- women were more likely to conform, 50-75% conformed at least one


Milgram's obedience study

- shock goes up every time the student gets the answer wrong
- experiment urges teacher to continue


conclusions milgram's study teaches

- 2/3 obeyed and shocked to the max
- we have a desire to not harm others, but a conflicting desire to obey authority


central route to persuasion

- focuses on getting the person to think thoroughly about an issue
- if arguments are strong and convincing the persuasion is more likely
- audience must be motivated to think analytically
- elaborated processs


peripheral route to persuasion

- focuses on cues that trigger automatic acceptance without much thinking
- more emotion based
- low effort
- associated with pleasure or good mood


poison parasite

- using company's own advertising against itself
- poison: strong counter information
- parasite: associative links between one's counter claims and the rival position


sleeper effect

delayed increase of the effect of a message that is accompanied by a discounting cue


foot in the door

compliance tactic that involved getting a person to agree to a large request by first setting them up by having that person agree to a modest request



- distinctive rituals or beliefs related to a god or person
- isolation from surroundings
- a charismatic leader
- people who join are usually less educated and young


jim jones

- people's temple
- preached racial harmony
- moved everyone to guyana
- mass suicide: juice with cyanide, tranquilizers, and pain killers


david koresh

- branch davidians
- members gradually asked to give up stuff
- 86 people killed in a fire


Marshall Herff Applewhite

-leader of heaven's gate
- recruited members by promising spaceship to salvation
- killed himself and other members with phenobarbital and applesauce, vodka, and plastic bags


attitude inoculation

techniques used to make people immune to attempts of other people to try to change their attitude on something


social facilitation

the tendency for people to perform differently when in the presence of others than when alone


social loafing

the phenomenon of a person exerting less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group than when they work alone


Mere presence

the mere presence of other people will enhance the performance in speed and accuracy of well-practiced asks, but will degrade the performance of less familiar tasks



co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activitiy



- loss of self-awareness, occurs in group situations, helps explain behavior during riots
- examples: Diener's Halloween study and Zimbardo's study


Diener's Halloween Study

conducted a naturalistic study on Halloween to assess the effects of 3 deindividuation variables (anonymity v nonanonymity, alone v group, and groups with or without a child who was made responsible for the group's actions) on stealing candy


Zimbardo's Study

the Stanford prison experiment. Young men were divided into the roles of prisoners and guard and put in a prison-like environment. The study was meant to last two weeks.


Risky Shift

occurs when a group collectively agrees on a course of action that is more extreme than they would have made if asked individually


group polarization

strengthening of groups position can lean in either direction (riskier or safer0



- a group decision making style characterized by an excessive tendency among group member to seek concurrence and suppress dissent
- people conform with group


Psychological reactance

occurs when a person feels that someone or something is taking away his or her choices or limiting the range of alternative