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1

Globalization Definition CLASS

THE CONTINUALLY INCREASING RATIO OF THE NUMBER OF SOCIAL INTERACTIONS TO THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE. THE WORLD IS EVER MORE CONNECTED AND BECOMING MORE CONNECTED WHILE MAINTAINING DIVERSITY AND VARIETY.

2

Popular Globalization Definitions

-progressive economic integration
-geographical expansion of free trade (neoliberalism)
-increasing significance of the UN or similar institutions as a global political forum
-the continued increase in population that reduce any type of isolation

3

Appadurai's notion of local; what it should be called

-Appadurai thinks we should replace local with intimacy (solidarity, imagination of community)
-There is still local but it does not fully capture peoples' capacity for community and solidarity (unity) buildin

4

Scape

Assemblages of people, objects, ideas (ways of being) like a category.
-Flows, intimacies, communities, imaginary worlds created through the process of globalization
-Its not objectively given (its subjective) - contextual, depending on the actors point of view

TYPES OF SCAPES include:
-Ethnoscapes
-Financescapes
-Mediascapes
-Ideoscapes
-Technoscapes

5

Ethnoscapes

-"Peoplescape"
-Flow of business personnel, refugees, tourists, immigrants, who move and re-imagine their collective identity
-Produced by flows of business personnel, guest workers, tourists, immigrants, and refugees
-Not bound to nation-state borders

6

Financescapes

Produced by flows of capital, currencies, and securities

7

Mediascapes

Produced by flows of images and information through print, media, TV, and films

8

Ideoscapes

Produced by flows of ideological (Western) worldviews like democracy, sovereignty, and welfare

9

Technoscapes

Produced by flows of machinery, technology, and software produced by transnational corporations and government agencies

10

Marc Auge and his significance

French anthropologist, created of the idea of 'non-places'

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Non Place

-spaces beyond public scrutiny; in the “shadows”
-Airport, hotel, shopping center, kidney hotels, black markets, the internet

12

Hyperglobalists

claim that nation-states are becoming weak and are on their way out

13

Transformationists

claim that globalization changes the state but the state still persists

14

Culture: Understand the notion of Time-Space Compression developed by David Harvey.

-Annihilation of space through time via capital accumulation and technological invention
-Change in sensibility is a change in reality itself

15

McDonaldization

Homogenization, the world is culturally homogenous due to US dominated corporate culture

16

Hybridization

Blending, aspects of 2 or more cultures mixed to form a blend (never complete), Creolization or crossover

17

Localization

transformation, culture change is received and transformed through interaction w/ existing, business adapts to meet needs (McFalafel)

18

Economics: Neoliberalism

-Neoliberalism DOES NOT limit the power of the market
-Neoliberalism weakens political agency b/c it TURNS CITIZENS INTO CONSUMERS therefore spending money instead of reflection on political agendas
-Assault on public goods due to privatization
-Civic discourse has become commercialized
-Corporate culture becomes the model for a “good life”

19

Individual agency

market driven notion of individualism, competition and consumption

20

Performance self

you as a product; a bundle of skills, alliances that need to be managed and enhanced

21

What is the difference between neoliberalism and late capitalism, as explained by Ortner?

Late capitalism has Less negative perception of Globalization

22

Fordism to Post-Fordism

-Relationship of labor and capital
-small-batch production
-Specialized products & jobs
-new information technologies
-Emphasis on types of consumers instead of social class
-rise of white collar worker and services
-Feminization of workforce

23

Keynesian to Post-Keynesian

-rapid transfer of control of economy from public to private sector(power of a free market)
-widening the gap b/w rich & poor
-Disaster capitalism → profit from suffering; the practice (by a government, regime, etc) of taking advantage of a major disaster to adopt liberal economic policies that the population would be less likely to accept under normal circumstances

24

Neoliberalism Main Points

-Culture becomes a commodity
-the control of the economy moves from the public to the private sector
-citizens are nonstop consumers
-corporate culture becomes the model for a "good life"
-the gap between the rich and poor grows significantly

25

Critiques of Neoliberal Processes

-assaults all things public (notion of public goods - citizenship)
-weakens political agency (citizens become consumers)
-civic discourse transformed into commercialism, privatization and deregulation
-corporate culture becomes model for good life - education, family etc

26

Personhood favored by neoliberalism

Neoliberalism generates:
-individualism, competition, consumption
-citizen/consumer
-performance self
-managed self (bundle of skills)
-fluidity, malleability, continuous improvement and investment in self

27

Global inequality that tourism makes visible

-sex tourism
-medical tourism (transplant & surrogacy)
-dark tourism (auchwitz)

28

Acculturation

process of social influence by which a person partially or fully acquires a new cultural outlook by living in a culture different to itself

29

Ethnocentrism

evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture

30

Cultural Shock

an experience a person may have when one moves to a cultural environment which is different from one's own; it is also the personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life due to immigration or a visit to a new country

31

Authenticity

quality or state of information characterized by genuine or original Identity construction/industry: created & reinforced through communication, relevant when challenged, predicts and guides behavior

32

What is Branding of Culture in the context of Global Tourism?

-Branding Culture → manufacturing and selling images of destinations (response to “white mans” vision of themselves)
Packaging: manufacturing and selling images/imaginaries of destinations
Responding to white man’s vision of themselves
-New consumers (global tourists)
-“New” cultures (“primitive” locals, authenticized and ethnicized)
Cultural Brokers (Guides)
-individuals tailor their practices to satisfy tourists (movie reference) cannibalism tours - marketing to appeal to tourists

33

New Emerging Tourisms

-Sustainable tourism (Management of resources (low impact on environment and
culture).
-Ecotourism = Responsible travel to pristine areas, benefiting local areas.
-Pro-poor tourism = Tourism to help the poorest in the development world.
-Recession tourism = New trend, generic retreats, low-cost.
-Medical tourism = Travel for cheaper medical services.
-Educational tourism = Learning about other culture.
-Creative tourism = Active participation in the tourist community, crafts.
-Sex tourism

34

Cannibal Tours (movie)

-tourists are natives of the ethnography
-imposing on everyday life and treat the people as commodities
-individuals tailor their practices to satisfy tourists
-Villagers only know and speak in economic terms
-English speaking when economy is involved
-Cannibalism is symbolic - tourists are consuming their culture

35

Organ Trafficking and Commercial Surrogacy: Intimacy & Interconnectedness

new levels of sharing bodily fluids & organs w/ strangers, construction of non-places & cultural brokers

36

Organ Trafficking and Commercial Surrogacy: Construction of Non-Places

-Hospitals, black markets, the internet, kidney motels

37

Organ Trafficking and Commercial Surrogacy: Cultural Brokers

-Packaging culture for marketing purposes to appeal to tourists
-Incorporates white man’s vision of non-western societies

38

Transplant Tourism

-purchase of transplant organ abroad that includes access to an organ by bypassing regulations, kidney is most common, underprivileged to power
-MEDICAL tourism

39

How do the language and ideas of liberal democracy and citizenship create space for the construction of more free individuals living longer at the expense of the world’s second class citizenry?

-medicine to live longer
-new forms of structural & symbolic violence w/ neoliberalism
-connection to underprivileged individuals
-can pay second class citizens for their organs, relatively inexpensive, at the cost of the citizens
-second class citizens may need additional medical attention but they don't receive it afterwards

40

What are the economic and legal factors leading to surrogacy in India, and what are some of the reasons, economic and legal, that limit surrogacy in other countries? So, more briefly, why India?

-Absence of Indian Laws on Surrogacy
-Global political economy
-Many Surrogates
-Education/infrastructure not as good
-Higher percentage of non-resident Indians originated from Gujarat than other Indian states

41

why is surrogacy so dominant in this particular Indian state?

-Anand, Gujarat:
-contract, family, hostel - rest, medicine - laborers
-Laws or absence of, education, infrastructure, high % of non-residents

42

What does it mean to say that “globalization globalizes and increases conflict?”

acceleration of change
produces winners and losers
losers struggle for resources
increases facilitation/distribution of arms
media & technology publicize conflict, export rebellion

43

How does conflict change in the age of globalization? Make sure you understand Appadurai’s cellular vs. vertebrate discussion of conflict in the global era.

-clash of civilizations
-conflict in the future will be the level of (culturally defined) civilizations
-Cellular vs Vertebrae Systems: small groups (terrorism) v. National State
-nations under change create uncertainty, which can cause a crisis. the state lashes out against minorities; violence is about production of certainty

44

Genocide

Intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such:
-Killing members of the group;
-Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
-Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
-Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
-Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

45

Communal violence

-a situation where violence is perpetrated across ethnic lines, and victims are chosen based upon ethnic group membership.
-The term communal violence is commonly used in South Asia, to describe those incidents where conflict between ethnic communities results in massacres.
-RWANDA MASSACRE

46

Weak State

third world, chaos
-COMMUNAL VIOLENCE HAPPENS HERE

47

Strong States

beaurocratic efficient states
-genocide

48

Ethnic Cleansing

practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory to create a "pure" society

49

Genocide v. Ethnic Cleansing

Grey area; Genocide is killing of people, ethnic cleansing is displacement. cleansing lacks policing and enforcement from global action. "Genocide you want to destroy the group, cleansing you just want them out"

50

Genocide as a product of modern culture

-Industrial style mass murder is product of modernistic efficiency, engineering, and morality
-Holocaust: a mad triumph of rational efficiency
-Holocaust: Crisis of enlightenment

51

Holocaust

a mad triumph of rational efficiency; Crisis of enlightenment

52

Shadows of War (Nordstrom)

-(in)visibility of shadows
-Non-places outside of everyday life
-Spaces beyond public scrutiny, where war and peace intermingle
-Irrational and illicit deals
Morally ambiguous people and spaces

53

What does it mean to say that killing needs to be learned?

-Killing has to be learned.
-no such thing as unmediated natural passions and emotions
-without culture we would not know how to feel
-Should be studied like any other people-related practice.
-To the cultural anthropologist, there is not such thing as unmediated natural passions or emotions, for without our cultures we would hardly know how or what to feel
Not why, but how people kill

54

Clash of Civilizations theory

-Huntington's notion that the key forces in the future will not be societies or states but regional cultural entities (e.g., "Western civilization" or "Islam")
-within a civilization a variety of cultural attitudes are shared, but between civilizations differences of attitude and interest will breed conflict.
-Geographic areas being divided

55

Critiques of the Clash of Civilizations Theory

Tipson’s Critique:
-Empirical Grounds
--How many civilizations are there? What kind of imperialism is this?
--Distorted reality: bloodiest clashes take place within civilizations, not between them
-Globalization/History:
--Past civilizations are not the same
--Global process/technology cut across civilizations
-Misunderstanding of Culture
--Ascribes to culture a physical reality (which it does not have)
--Culture "moves", it is not stuck in territories
-Arabic not Islamic

-Nordstrom’s Critique:
--No local war,
--What is local is part of transnational global networks/flow that cuts across "civilizations",
--no clear cut homogenous cultural units
--dichotomies are inaccurate: enemy/friend

-Gusterson’s Critique:
--too basic definition of cultures
--denying multiculturalism
--maligning islam
--phony scientific methods
--West is best assumption

56

Is 9/11 an example of a clash of civilizations and why? What does the reading of 9/11 through the Culture Clash model leave out (Political economy at play? Heterogeneity of civilizations?

-Collective participation creates imagined community of nations
-Us Vs. Them idea against ideology
-Conflict created by political & economic issues not cultural
-"Global" site

-9/11 article leaves out:
--Space at which groups, individuals, and institutions negotiate how to use aspects of the past in the present, often by manipulating the space of the site itself

57

basic facts about the Rwandan Genocide from Newbury’s reading “Understanding Genocide.”

-April-July 1994
-Hutu & tutsi ethnicities fostered by Belgian colonizers favoring tutsi
-after independence, Hutu placed in power
-Hutu Power ideology - mass-killing of Tutsi's
-1 million people died
-Violence followed cultural patterning
-Genocide: massive ritual of purification, intended to purify nation of obstructing beings
-Notions about flow/blockage helps us understand patterns of killing
--Dumbing bodies in river, cutting off certain body parts

58

main arguments present in “A Global Site of Heritage”.

problems with peace:
-It's not real - social construct
-Institutionalized (war & school)
-Peace is an illusion/magic trick
-war and peace are not binary opposites