Exam 2 all drugs Flashcards Preview

x SCO summer 2015 Pharmacology > Exam 2 all drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 all drugs Deck (139):
1

Mechlorethamine

Alkylating Agent. Cross links between guanine bases in DNA Causes strand breakage and the occasional miscoding mutations. Very unstable blistering agent. Via IV. almost no drug is excreted. Severe nausea and vomiting Severe bone marrow depression Latent viral infections due to immunosuppression Patient will be very susceptible to infection. Must use caution.

2

Pyridostigmine

Intermediate Indirect acting, inhibits AChE. common long–term myasthenia gravis treatment.

3

Cefotaxime

3rd Gen Cephalosporins. GOOD CSF penetration. further diminished gram positive coverage with improved gram negative coverage. (including some pseudomonal). elimination through Kidney.

4

Metoprolol

Beta–1 selective antagonists. Increased survival after MI

5

Doxorubicin

Antibiotics – induces cytotoxicity and free radicals. must be given IV. Red urine and dark red veins because of extravasation.

6

Methotrexate

Antimetabolite – Prevents folic acid conversion to THF leading to decreased DNA/ protein materials. Thymidine depletion is most prominent. Low doses Tx inflammatory diseases (Rheumatoid arthritis, crohn disease). via oral, IM, IV. intrathecal for CNS. Avoid in pregnancy. can lead to crystalluria

7

Cevimeline

Direct acting, agonist for ACh. Used in Sjogren's syndrome (for salivation)

8

Tetrahydrozoline

(aka visine) Alpha–1 agonists. It sucks! Leads to rebound redness due to receptor desensitization Local constriction reduces red eye

9

Bicalutamide

Steroid Hormones and Antagonists ….. Nonsteroidal antigen. Tx prostate cancer. via oral administration. Kidney excretes.

10

Bethanechol

Direct acting, agonist for ACh. More resistant to AChE

11

Leuprolide

Steroid Hormones and Antagonists ….. Steroid hormone that is GnRH analog. Tx prostate and breast cancer. Fewer side effects with treatment than estrogen

12

Phenylephrine

Alpha–1 agonists. it's a Mydriatic (eye dilator) and OTC decongestant. Tx for Hypotension. also found in many OTC medications for congestion (local constriction) Used often for acute hypotension caused by severe hemorrhage, decreased blood volume, shock, etc. Diagnosis of Horner’s

13

Ceftaroline

5th Gen Cephalosporins. gram positive. improved gram negative. is activeagainst S. aureus (including MRSA) and S. pneumoniae. elimination through Kidney.

14

Interferons

Recombinant DNA via bacteria, activation of macrophages and suppression of cell proliferation. Alpha– primarily leukocytic Beta– produced by CT fibroblasts Gamma– produced by T–lymphocytes

15

Cefprozil

2nd Gen Cephalosporins. has diminished gram positive and improved gram negative coverage. elimination through Kidney.

16

Lomustine

Alkylating Agents. Alkylates DNA. Tx brain tumors (crosses CNS). via oral. Kidney excretion. AE: Delayed hematopoietic depression, development of aplastic marrow, renal toxicity and pulmonary fibrosis

17

Goserelin

Steroid Hormones and Antagonists ….. Steroid hormone that is GnRH analog. Tx prostate and breast cancer. Fewer side effects with treatment than estrogen

18

Cefpodoxime

3rd Gen Cephalosporins. further diminished gram positive coverage with improved gram negative coverage. (including some pseudomonal). elimination through Kidney.

19

Pralidoxime

Reactivates AChE

20

Bevacizumab (Avastin)

Monoclonal antibody … Anti VEGF. Tx retinal neovascular diseases. Via IV.

21

Prednisone

Steroid Hormones and Antagonists ….. Steroid hormone that reduces cell growth and proliferation. Tx lymphomas and induces remission. Via oral, excreted urine. Predispose patient to infection, Hyperglycemia, Cataract formation, increased IOP, Osteoporosis, Mood changes: hyper and happy

22

Cephalexin (Keflex)

1st Gen Cephalosporins. Tx gram positive and basic gram negative. poor oral administration. elimination through Kidney. Tx eye (lid) infections. tx pharyngitis

23

Oxacillin

Penicillinase–Resistant Penicillins. tx Gram (+). only for infections caused by penicillinase staph.

24

Salmeterol

Beta–2 agonists

25

Doripenem

Carbapenems. tx both gram + and –, anaerobes, and pseudomonas. Resist hydrolysis by most penicillinases. IM / IV. kidney excreted.

26

Cytarabine

Antimetabolite – interferes with DNA polymerase. Given IV, excreted in the Kidneys. high doses can induce chemical conjunctivitis.

27

Scopolamine

Muscarinic blocker. Good for seasickness but can cause drowsiness and amnesia. used for pre–anesthesia.

28

Tadalafil

(Cialis) Type 5 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors

29

Cefditoren

3rd Gen Cephalosporins. further diminished gram positive coverage with improved gram negative coverage. (including some pseudomonal). elimination through Kidney.

30

Terbutaline

Beta–2 agonists. Tx long–term asthma

31

Tacrine

Intermediate Indirect acting, inhibits AChE. Treatment for Alzheimer's (not as often as other options because of side effects)

32

Imipenem–cilastatin

Carbapenems. tx both gram + and –, anaerobes, and pseudomonas. Resist hydrolysis by most penicillinases. IM / IV. kidney excreted.

33

Varenicline (Chantix)

Direct acting, agonist for ACh

34

Dobutamine

Beta–1 agonist

35

Ceftizoxime

3rd Gen Cephalosporins. further diminished gram positive coverage with improved gram negative coverage. (including some pseudomonal). elimination through Kidney.

36

Formoterol

Beta–2 agonists

37

Prazosin

Alpha–1 antagonists. Relaxes vascular smooth muscle as well as smooth muscle in the prostate

38

Brimonidine

(Alphagan–P) Alpha–2 agonists. Tx of glaucoma

39

Amoxicillin

Aminopenicillins. tx Gram (+). limited gram (–) coverage Considered extended spectrum. via only oral. Almost completely absorbed. COMBINE WITH CLAVULANIC ACID FOR AWESOMENESS

40

Neostigmine

Intermediate Indirect acting, inhibits AChE. Reverses neuromuscular blockade produced during anesthesia. Used in myasthenia Gravis

41

Carvedilol

Non–selective beta antagonists with partial alpha–1 antagonist activity

42

Cefdinir

3rd Gen Cephalosporins. further diminished gram positive coverage with improved gram negative coverage. (including some pseudomonal). elimination through Kidney.

43

Vardenafil

(Levitra) Type 5 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors

44

Dicyclomine

Muscarinic blocker

45

Dactinomycin

Antibiotics – interfere with DNA between GC pair and interferes with RNA polymerase. sometimes combined with methotrexate. via IV. liver excretion. SENSITIZES PATIENT TO RADIATION. Bone marrow depression, Immunosuppression, Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis, alopecia,

46

Daptomycin

Other" antibiotic. induces rapid depolarization of cell membrane. tx gram positive, skin infections. Inactivated by pulmonary surfactants

47

Labetalol

Non–selective beta antagonists with partial alpha–1 antagonist activity. Can be used in hypertensive emergency

48

Alprenolol

Beta–1 selective antagonists

49

Tamoxifen

Steroid Hormones and Antagonists.. Estrogen antagonist. First line treatment for breast cancer (and prophylactic). often given with leuprolide. Hot flashes, nausea, vomiting, skin rash; Potential to cause endometrial cancer; Crystalline retinopathy and other vision probs

50

Nicotine

Direct acting, agonist for ACh. Can be absorbed through the skin.

51

Metaproterenol

Beta–2 agonists. Tx Asthma

52

Carteolol

Non–selective beta antagonists with partial agonist effect

53

Esmolol

Beta–1 selective antagonists. Very short acting (Eskimos are short)

54

Nilutamide

Steroid Hormones and Antagonists ….. Nonsteroidal antigen. Tx prostate cancer. via oral administration. Kidney excretes. NILUTAMIDE CAN CAUSE VISUAL PROBLEMS

55

Paclitaxel

Microtubule Inhibitors – binds to tubulin and makes too stable. via IV. P450 metabolism Biliary excretion. Neutropenia, peripheral neuropathy. Docetaxel is more potent than paclitaxel.

56

Cefaclor

2nd Gen Cephalosporins. has diminished gram positive and improved gram negativecoverage. elimination through Kidney.

57

Doxazosin

Alpha–1 antagonists. Relaxes vascular smooth muscle as well as smooth muscle in the prostate. Doxazosin has longer half–life

58

Retuximab

Monoclonal antibody … Induce cell–mediated cytotoxicity. Tx Lymphomas and Leukemias. Via IV. Severe rxns have been fatal, must be infused slowly. Hypotension, bronchospasm and angioedema. Chills and fever after first infusion. Cardiac arrhythmia. You don't see nausea vomitinghair falling out

59

Malathion

Long indirect actin, inhibits AChE

60

Docetaxel

Microtubule Inhibitors – binds to tubulin and makes too stable. via IV. P450 metabolism Biliary excretion. Neutropenia, peripheral neuropathy Docetaxel contraindicated in cardiac disease (can cause fluid retention) and is more potent than paclitaxel

61

Penicillin V

Natural Penicillins. tx Gram (+).CAN be taken orally. Susceptible to inactivation by B–lactamases

62

Timolol (Timoptic)

Non–selective beta antagonists. Very effective when used topically to the eye, but do not prescribe for an asthmatic patientIncreased survival after heart attack

63

Yohimbine

Alpha–2 antagonist. Used to treat ED Still found in many OTCs/”nutritional supplements”

64

Ipratropium (Atrovent)

Muscarinic blocker. Tx COPD and Asthma

65

Phenoxybenzamine

Non–selective alpha antagonists. IRREVERSIBLE. Greater affinity for alpha 1 over alpha 2. Used for pre–op treatment in cases of pheochromocytoma to control hypertension

66

Cefazolin

1st Gen Cephalosporins. Tx gram positive and basic gram negative. poor oral administration. elimination through Kidney. longer duration of action (penetrates bone!)

67

Pindolol

Non–selective beta antagonists with partial agonist effect

68

Nebivolol

Beta–1 selective antagonists

69

Carmustine

Alkylating Agent. Alkylates DNA. Tx brain tumors (crosses CNS). via IV. Kidney excretion. AE: Delayed hematopoietic depression, development of aplastic marrow, renal toxicity and pulmonary fibrosis

70

Donepezil

Intermediate Indirect acting, inhibits AChE. Treatment for Alzheimer's

71

Atenolol

Beta–1 selective antagonists

72

Pilocarpine

Direct acting, agonist for ACh. Older treatment for glaucoma. Used in Sjogren's syndrome (for salivation)

73

Vinblastine

Microtubule Inhibitors–halts anaphase. IV injection. Metabolism by the P450 system. Excretion via bile and feces. hyperuricemia (buildup of uric acid in the urine) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, alopecia. Phlebtis or cellulitis if extravasation occurs

74

Physostigmine

Intermediate Indirect acting, inhibits AChE

75

Dicloxacillin

Penicillinase–Resistant Penicillins. tx Gram (+). only for infections caused by penicillinase staph.

76

Midodrine

Alpha–1 agonists. Tx orthostatichypotension (it helps get blood to the heart)

77

Penbutolol

Non–selective beta antagonists with partial agonist effect

78

Ertapenem

Carbapenems. tx both gram + and –, anaerobes, and pseudomonas. Resist hydrolysis by most penicillinases. IM / IV. kidney excreted.

79

Cefepime

4th Gen Cephalosporins. has furtherdiminished gram positive coverage with improved gram negative coverage and FULL coverage against Pseudomonas. elimination through Kidney.

80

Phentolamine

Non–selective alpha antagonists. Causes cardiac stimulation via reduced peripheral resistance Used in an injection format for treatment of ED – may lead to orthostatic hypotension and fibrosis (eek!)

81

Sildenafil

(Viagra) Type 5 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors

82

Apraclonidine

Alpha–2 agonists. Tx of glaucoma

83

Bleomycin

Antibiotics – scission of DNA. Tx testicular cancer. Via subcutaneous, IM, or IV. Kidney excretion. can cause Pulmonary toxicity Alopecia Hypertrophic skin changes and hyperpigmentation Fever and chills

84

Galantamine

Intermediate Indirect acting, inhibits AChE. Treatment for Alzheimer's

85

Rivastigmine

Intermediate Indirect acting, inhibits AChE. Treatment for Alzheimer's

86

Atropine

Muscarinic blocker. not very selective. week long duration! has minimal CNS effects. Good for pre–anesthesia. Tx cholinergic poisoning (but doesn't help against nicotinic effects)

87

Ticarcillin

Antipseudomonal Penicillins. has good gram (–) coverage (considered extended spectrum). via IV or IM.

88

Albuterol

Beta–2 agonists. Most commonly used asthma Rx

89

Cefixime

3rd Gen Cephalosporins. further diminished gram positive coverage with improved gram negative coverage. (including some pseudomonal). elimination through Kidney.

90

Edrophonium (Tensilon)

Short Indirect acting, inhibits AChE. used for diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis. also Reverses neuromuscular blockade produced during anesthesia

91

Piperacillin

Antipseudomonal Penicillins. tx Gram (+). has good gram (–) coverage (considered extended spectrum). via IV or IM

92

Cyclopentolate

Muscarinic blocker. short duration (1 day). Good for accurate refraction, dilated fundus exam, uveitis treatment

93

Parathion

Long indirect actin, inhibits AChE

94

Acetylcholine (Miochol)

Direct acting, agonist for ACh

95

Tiotropium (Spiriva)

Muscarinic blocker. Tx COPD and Asthma

96

Cisplatin

Platinum coordinating complex, forms cross–links in guanine. IV administration. Little penetration to CSF Renal excretion. Severevomiting, Nephrotoxicity, Ototoxicity

97

Oxaliplatin

Platinum coordinating complex, IV administration. Little penetration to CSF. Renal excretion. forms cross–links in guanine. Mild nausea, myelosuppression

98

Terazosin

Alpha–1 antagonists

99

Acebutolol

Non–selective beta antagonists with partial agonist effect

100

Ampicillin

Aminopenicillins. tx Gram (+). limited gram (–) coverage Considered extended spectrum. via only oral.

101

Norepinephrine

non–selective Alpha/beta agonist. Little effect on Beta 2 receptors Used often for acute hypotension caused by severe hemorrhage, decreased blood volume, shock, etc.

102

6–thioguanine

Antimetabolite – Inhibits the first step of purine–ring biosynthesis and blocks formation of AMP. Genetic counseling is recommended because some patients accumulate higher toxic metabolites. Don't use for maintenance therapy

103

Sarin

Long indirect actin, inhibits AChE

104

Propranolol

Non–selective beta antagonists. Increased survival after heart attack

105

Homatropine

Muscarinic blocker. Second longest effect (1–3 days). Good for accurate refraction, uveitis treatment

106

Tropicamide

Muscarinic blocker. shortest duration (6 hours). Good for dilated fundus exam, uveitis treatment

107

Clonidine

Alpha–2 agonists. Tx high blood pressure.

108

Anastrozole

Nonsteroidal Aromatase inhibitors: decrease the production of estrogen. More potent selective. Do not need hydrocortisone supplement. does not predispose to endometrial cancer.

109

6–mercaptopurine

Antimetabolite– Inhibits the first step of purine–ring biosynthesis. Given orally in spite of lower bioavailability. Bone marrow depression Anorexia, nausea, can cause JAUNDICE

110

Cefoxitin

2nd Gen Cephalosporins. has diminished gram positive and improved gram negative coverage. elimination through Kidney.

111

Clavulanic acid + amoxicillin (Augmentin)

β–lactamase Inhibitor + Antibiotic Combos. bindand inactivate penicillinases allowing combined drugs to work. Used in to treat many eye infections.

112

Cefuroxime

2nd Gen Cephalosporins. has diminished gram positive and improved gram negative coverage. elimination through Kidney. can cross BBB. Tx bronchitis / pneumonia in the elderly/immunocompromised

113

Methicillin

Penicillinase–Resistant Penicillins. tx Gram (+).

114

Carbachol

Direct acting, agonist for ACh. more resistant to AChE. Older treatment for glaucoma

115

Dacarbazine

Alkylating Agents. Attacks nucleophilic groups in DNA. Tx melanoma. via IV. Nausea and vomiting, myelosuppression, hepatotoxicity

116

Nafcillin

Penicillinase–Resistant Penicillins. tx Gram (+). only for infections caused by penicillinase staph. High toxicity, causes interstitial nephritis Used only to identify MRSA.

117

Telavancin

Other" antibiotic. inhibits cell wall. tx gram positive. (also MRSA). Tx skin infections. Taste disturbances, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, foamy urine, NOT to be used during pregnancy Caution in cardiac conditions"

118

Meropenem

Carbapenems. tx both gram + and –, anaerobes, and pseudomonas. Resist hydrolysis by most penicillinases. IM / IV. kidney excreted.

119

Aztreonam

Monobactams. only for gram negative! tx pseudomonas. it's a ring not fused to another ring. No cross reactivity with penicillin!

120

Betaxolol

Beta–1 selective antagonists. Also used as a glc tx

121

Letrozole

Nonsteroidal Aromatase inhibitors: decrease the production of estrogen. More potent selective. Do not need hydrocortisone supplement. does not predispose to endometrial cancer.

122

Ceftriaxone

3rd Gen Cephalosporins. Tx gonorrhea. BILE excretion



further diminished gram positive coverage with improved gram negative coverage. (including some pseudomonal).

123

Exemestane

Steroidal inhibitor of aromatase. Tx Breast cancer. Via oral.

124

Carboplatin

Platinum coordinating complex, IV admistration. Little penetration to CSF. Renal excretion. forms cross–links in guanine. Mild nausea, myelosuppression

125

Aminoglutethimide

Nonsteroidal Aromatase inhibitor. Tx breast cancer. Also inhibits hydrocortisone synthesis, given with hydrocortisone.

126

5–fluorouracil

Antimetabolite – Thymidine analog that prevents DNA synthesis. Tx skin cancer. Through IV and topically. Excreted in the kidney/lungs. Can cause anorexia.

127

Penicillin G

Natural Penicillins. tx Gram (+).Cannot be taken orally. Susceptible to inactivation by B–lactamases

128

Echothiophate

Long indirect actin, inhibits AChE

129

Cefadroxil

1st Gen Cephalosporins. Tx gram positive and basic gram negative. poor oral administration. elimination through Kidney

130

Nadolol

Non–selective beta antagonists. Long duration of action

131

Flutamide

Steroid Hormones and Antagonists ….. Nonsteroidal antigen. Tx prostate cancer. via oral administration. Kidney excretes.

132

Ceftibuten

3rd Gen Cephalosporins. further diminished gram positive coverage with improved gram negative coverage. (including some pseudomonal). elimination through Kidney.

133

Vincristine

Microtubule Inhibitors–halts anaphase. IV injection. Metabolism by the P450 system. Excretion via bile and feces. hyperuricemia (buildup of uric acid in the urine) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, alopecia. Phlebtis or cellulitis if extravasation occurs.

134

Ceftazidime

3rd Gen Cephalosporins. further diminished gram positive coverage with improved gram negative coverage. (including some pseudomonal). elimination through Kidney.

135

Oxybutynin

Muscarinic blocker. Tx urinary urgency/bladder spasm.

136

Tamsulosin

(Flomax) Alpha–1 antagonists. Relaxes vascular smooth muscle as well as smooth muscle in the prostate. Tx enlarged prostate (BPH) but can cause Floppy iris syndrome in cataract surgery patients.

137

Vancomycin

Other" antibiotic. Inhibits cell wall synthesis. mostly topical because oral = nephrotoxicity. via slow IV. elim via kidneys. tx enterocolitis (oral). Fever, chills, phlebitis at injection site, flushing and/or shock if rapid infusion (can pretreat with anti–histamine)"

138

Bacitracin (common ocular)

Other" antibiotic. Gram positive. similar to vancomycin. via TOPICAL. SAFE IN PREGNANCY. causes nephrotoxicity. Tx MRSA, infection blepharitis, corneal ulcers"

139

Isoproterenol

Non–selective beta agonist. Tx cardiac arrest (w/ epinephrine)