Exam 2 (Ch 4-6 w/ some of 7 and 9) Flashcards Preview

Introduction to Biological Anthropology > Exam 2 (Ch 4-6 w/ some of 7 and 9) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 (Ch 4-6 w/ some of 7 and 9) Deck (63)
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1

Altricial

Children that cannot care for itself at birth

Primates are altricial

Example: human baby

2

Analogous Traits

Similarity of trait or structure is based on function, NOT common descent
Comes from homoplasy
Example: Birds/bats wings

3

Anthropoid

Monkeys
70% of all living primate species
More encephalized
Diurnal
Reduced Snout and olfaction
Post-orbital plate, fused mandible
Greater degree of color vision
Long gestation and maturation

4

Arboreal Hypothesis

How primates evolved as they did
They took to the trees
Correct primate adaptation

5

Ancestral Traits

Inherited from predecessor in the same form.
Example: Human Dental Formula

6

Brachiation

Hand over hand swinging

7

Callitrichidae

Common Marmoset
Exudativore / Insectivore / Frugivore
Polyandrous
Claws (not nails) that were re-evolved
Annual twinning

8

Clade

Group of organisms that evolved from a common ancestor

9

Cladistics

Division based on presence weighted characteristics
A part of organizing evolution

10

Colobinae

Banquet Eaters
Black and White Colobus:
Foliovore- leaves
Social group- Polygynous
White at birth

11

Dental Formula

Highly diagnostic
Old world monkey's / apes / humans: 2.1.2.3.
New world monkey's: 2.1.3.3.

12

Derived Trait

Inherited from the predecessor in an altered state
Example: Human foot

13

Catarrhini

Old World Monkeys:
Narrow downward facing nostrils
2.1.2.3. Dentition
Two subfamilies: cercopithecines and colobines

14

Cercopithecinae

Pouch-eaters
Long-Tailed Macaque:
Social unit- 6-60 all sexes and ages (when in temples there are more groups and more in each group)
Ischial Callosites- fleshy ass pads that are calloused
Matrilocal- females stay where they are born

15

Encephalization

Brain size to body size
Bigger than we would expect it to be for primates

16

Eutherian / Vivaparous

(placental) Live birth

17

Generalized Traits

Useful in multiple environments
Example: monkey's paws and human's hands

18

Gradualism

Darwinian View
Change will accumulate slowly over time
Every little genetic change over time

19

Haplorhine

No rhinarium and no dental comb

20

Hominoid

Apes:
No tail
More encephalized
Capable of forward facing sex
Two families - lesser apes and great apes

21

Homeothermic

Warm-blooded

22

Homologous Trait

Similarity of trait or structure is based on common descent
What we look for when looking at evolutionary tree
Example: human hand and whale fin

23

Homoplasy

The process by which analogous traits come out
"same molding"

24

K Selected

Having few offspring per birth and invest heavily to them.

25

***Phylogenetic Tree

Product of phylogenetic
Notes time depth weighted characteristics

26

Phylogenetics

Divison based on presence or absence of homologies in relation to ancestral form

27

Platyrrhini

New World Monkeys:
Wide, outward facing nostrils
2.1.3.3.
Two families:callitrichidae and cebidae

28

Prosimian

Before Monkey
Most ancestral / primitive
Lemurs / Lorises / Tarsiers (oddity and most ancestral of the 3)

29

Punctuated Equilibrium

Gould and Eldridges View
Evolution proceeds with periods of rapid change (speciation events) followed by periods of relatively little change

30

Quadrupedal

4 leg walking