Exam 2 (Ch 4-6 w/ some of 7 and 9) Flashcards Preview

Introduction to Biological Anthropology > Exam 2 (Ch 4-6 w/ some of 7 and 9) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 (Ch 4-6 w/ some of 7 and 9) Deck (63):
1

Altricial

Children that cannot care for itself at birth

Primates are altricial

Example: human baby

2

Analogous Traits

Similarity of trait or structure is based on function, NOT common descent
Comes from homoplasy
Example: Birds/bats wings

3

Anthropoid

Monkeys
70% of all living primate species
More encephalized
Diurnal
Reduced Snout and olfaction
Post-orbital plate, fused mandible
Greater degree of color vision
Long gestation and maturation

4

Arboreal Hypothesis

How primates evolved as they did
They took to the trees
Correct primate adaptation

5

Ancestral Traits

Inherited from predecessor in the same form.
Example: Human Dental Formula

6

Brachiation

Hand over hand swinging

7

Callitrichidae

Common Marmoset
Exudativore / Insectivore / Frugivore
Polyandrous
Claws (not nails) that were re-evolved
Annual twinning

8

Clade

Group of organisms that evolved from a common ancestor

9

Cladistics

Division based on presence weighted characteristics
A part of organizing evolution

10

Colobinae

Banquet Eaters
Black and White Colobus:
Foliovore- leaves
Social group- Polygynous
White at birth

11

Dental Formula

Highly diagnostic
Old world monkey's / apes / humans: 2.1.2.3.
New world monkey's: 2.1.3.3.

12

Derived Trait

Inherited from the predecessor in an altered state
Example: Human foot

13

Catarrhini

Old World Monkeys:
Narrow downward facing nostrils
2.1.2.3. Dentition
Two subfamilies: cercopithecines and colobines

14

Cercopithecinae

Pouch-eaters
Long-Tailed Macaque:
Social unit- 6-60 all sexes and ages (when in temples there are more groups and more in each group)
Ischial Callosites- fleshy ass pads that are calloused
Matrilocal- females stay where they are born

15

Encephalization

Brain size to body size
Bigger than we would expect it to be for primates

16

Eutherian / Vivaparous

(placental) Live birth

17

Generalized Traits

Useful in multiple environments
Example: monkey's paws and human's hands

18

Gradualism

Darwinian View
Change will accumulate slowly over time
Every little genetic change over time

19

Haplorhine

No rhinarium and no dental comb

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Hominoid

Apes:
No tail
More encephalized
Capable of forward facing sex
Two families - lesser apes and great apes

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Homeothermic

Warm-blooded

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Homologous Trait

Similarity of trait or structure is based on common descent
What we look for when looking at evolutionary tree
Example: human hand and whale fin

23

Homoplasy

The process by which analogous traits come out
"same molding"

24

K Selected

Having few offspring per birth and invest heavily to them.

25

***Phylogenetic Tree

Product of phylogenetic
Notes time depth weighted characteristics

26

Phylogenetics

Divison based on presence or absence of homologies in relation to ancestral form

27

Platyrrhini

New World Monkeys:
Wide, outward facing nostrils
2.1.3.3.
Two families:callitrichidae and cebidae

28

Prosimian

Before Monkey
Most ancestral / primitive
Lemurs / Lorises / Tarsiers (oddity and most ancestral of the 3)

29

Punctuated Equilibrium

Gould and Eldridges View
Evolution proceeds with periods of rapid change (speciation events) followed by periods of relatively little change

30

Quadrupedal

4 leg walking

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R Selected

Having a litter then no care for the babies

32

Rhinarium

Fleshy nose

33

Specialized Traits

Advantageous within their specific environment
Example: Horse's hooves and human feet

34

Strepsirhine

HAS dental tooth comb and rhinarium

35

Systematics

The study of biological diversity and its evolution
Trying to organized
Darwin and Linneaus took part in this

36

Tapetum Lucidum

Cat reflect eyes

37

Allometry

"Scaling" of traits
Example: brain - body size = EQ

38

Behavioral Ecology

Study of how evolution has shaped behavior within an ecological context (Top down impact)

4 ways:
Predator Avoidance
Foraging
Reproduction
Group dynamics

-Predator Avoidance: Small must be cryptic, Large must be threatening, Most rely on the group (which is why primates are social)

-Foraging (Food): Body size, brain size, activity level, and diet are correlated. The bigger the brain needs more protein. Bigger the body needs more calories. It's based on how much food is around and the quality of it. *Small body is insectivore, large brain is frugivore (fruit gives sugar, carbs, protein), large body is herbivore (need so much in order to get quality protein) *Females determine their range over food availability, Males determine their range based on availability of females

39

Allopatric

A foraging pattern

Create their own, species specific range

They will attack any other type of primate in their range

40

Sympatric

A foraging pattern

Share range with other species

Can overlap because of diversity in resource exploitation
Example: Diurnal vs Nocturnal, Canopy vs ground

41

Noyaou

Solitary

Female set individual range and males range to overlap as many females as possible.

Found in most "primitive" and nocturnal

Example: Lorises and Orangutans

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Monogamous

Female and Male pair-bonded for life

Rare in any species

Often no dimorphism

Potentially increase parental care (dual protection)

Example: Gibbons

43

Polyandrous

One breeding Female and many Males

Rarest of all

Males invest heavily in parenting since Female recruits them to protect children and in exchange they will mate

Example: Marmosets

44

Multi-Male / Multi-Female

Many of both sexes

All sexes forage together

Heavy competition

Complex group politics = big brains

Requires a plentiful environment

Example: Capuchins

45

Polygynous

Single Adult Male with Females and young

Usually Matrilineal (boys leave)

Creates Sexual Dipmorphisms
Example: lions mane, silverback gorilla

Creates characteristic behaviors (infanticide)

Example: Gorilla

46

Affilative

Aggression is risky

Affiliation can convey benefits

Grooming

Sex

Alloparenting

47

Alloparenting

Parenting behavior from non-parents

48

Sexual Dimorphism

A difference in a physical attribute between the males and females of the species

49

Clade

Group of organisms that evolved from a common ancestor

50

Prehensility

Having a tail that acts as a kind of hand for support in trees

Common in New World Monkeys

51

Reproductive Strategies

Males' primary strategy: physically compete for access to reproductively mature females which causes sexual selection (the freq. of traits that change due to those traits' attractiveness to members of the opposite sex). Another strategy is infanticide (the killing of a nursing infant in order for the mother to resume ovulation.

Females' primary strategy: Being higher ranked. Selecting on the basis of characteristics such as disposition, physical appearance, and position in social hierarchy

52

What are the major types of classification/systematic methods? What are the positive and negative aspects of each? What are the final products? What criteria do each use to make their distinctions?

Phylogenetics: They do division based on presence or abscence or homologies in relation to ancestral form. Positive- Gives time depth and is weighted. Negative- Might pick wrong. Product- phylogenetic tree

Cladistics: Division based on presence weighted characteristics. Product - Cladogram

Phenetics: Grouping based on similarities. Negative - disregards phylogeny / evolutionary relationship and Homoplasy. Positive - fine taxonomic distinction. Product: Phenogram

53

What are the shared characteristics of all mammals? NOT FINISHED What are common trends for mammalian evolution?

Mammary Glands and hair of some kind

54

What are the major species trends/traits for primates? What makes a primate a primate?

K-selected, long gestation and maturation, altricial young, eutherian is what makes a primate a primate.

Encephalized brain, forward facing eyes, heterodonty (different teeth for different jobs), bilateral symmetry

55

What traits do we use to classify major primate groups? (How do we make distinctions on the primate family tree?)

Prosimians: Nocturnal and Insectivores, dental tooth comb, grooming claw

Anthropoids: Diurnal, post-orbital plate, fused mandible, 2.1.2.3. dentition, narrow downward facing nostrils

Hominoids: No tail, forward facing sex

56

What are the major types of primate social/foraging organization? What are the overriding principles behind primate social organization (what do females and males focus on)?

Overriding principles behind primate social organization: Females - determine rang end group size based on availability of food. Males - Determine range and group size based on availability of females

Major types of primate social/foraging organization: Noyau, Monogamous, Polyandry, Multi-male / Multi-female, polygynous

57

What are major forms of primate behavior? What is the single most important affilative behavior among primates?

Group living, affiliation (grooming and sex), parenting, and communication.

The most important affliative behavior is alloparenting

58

How are primates used as models for evolution? What part(s) of the brain is/are important for language?

The parts of the brain important for language is the Broca's area (understand speech but can't produce) and Wernicke's area (can produce speech but can't understand)

To understand the similarities we have their learned, shared knowledge and patterns of behavior within a group

59

How are primates used as models for evolution? What part(s) of the brain is/are important for language?

The parts of the brain important for language is the Broca's area (understand speech but can't produce) and Wernicke's area (can produce speech but can't understand)

By looking at the karyotypes we share and do not share.

60

How do primates exhibit higher level behavior like, culture, aggression, etc.

With dominance

61

Stereoscopic Vision

Depth perception

62

Broca's area

Speech production: can understand but can't produce

63

Wernicke's area

Speech perception: can express but can't understand