Exam 2(chapters 7-12) Flashcards Preview

Soc 203 > Exam 2(chapters 7-12) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2(chapters 7-12) Deck (96):
1

Social stratification

layers; systematic ranking of different groups in a hierarchy

2

class

open stratification system. a persons economic position in society associated with income, wealth and occupation. Economically based.

3

caste

closed stratification system. social levels are closed. an individual remains in the social level of birth all their life

4

social class mobility

individual can change his or her socioeconomic position

5

achieved status

something a person achieves through effort or lack of effort

6

ascribed status

socially significant. Cannot alter. ex) race, gender, etc.

7

income

amount of money a person earns in a given period of time. earned most commonly at a job and less commonly through investments. can come from gov't transfers(social security/disability)

8

wealth

net worth. It is the value of everything a person owns minus the value of everythign they owe. wealth is more important higher up the income ladder.

9

meritocracy

a society in which personal success is based on talent and individual effort. so your position in the stratification system depends primarily on your talents and efforts.
society benefits because the positions are occupied by the best qualified indis

10

social class categories in the US

teardrop model. bottom is underclass, next is working poor and working class. after that is the middle class and then is the upoer or capitalist class.

11

underclass

the bottom category a class of unemployed, unemployables, and underemployed. Hopelessly set apart from the nation at large

12

working class/poor

below the median household income. people who perform manual labor or work in low wage sectors like fod service and retail jobs

13

middle class

those who provide skilled services of some kind and work for someone else.

14

capitalist class

upper class. those who own or exercise substrantial financial control over large businesses, financial institutions or factories. smallest of the categories, and consists of those whose wealth adn income are dramatically greater than the rest of the population.

15

income vs wealth

Wealth is built up over a lifetime and passed down to the next generation, unlike income. wealth is used to create new opportunities while income pays for routine expenditures

16

upper middle income

14% at 80 thousand per year

17

middle income

30% about 45 thousand per year

18

capitalist class income

top 1% make about 1.5 million a year

19

working class income

30% about 30 thousand a year

20

working poor income

13% about 20 thousand a year

21

underclass income

bottom 13% about 10 thousand a year

22

power

the ability to exercise influence on political institutions and actors in order to realize personal or group interests.

23

status

the prestige associated with social position

24

The functionalism perspective on stratification

stratification is functional for society as a whole

25

social conflict perspective on stratification

inequality weakens society as a whole and exists because it benefits those higher up. inequality is dysfuctional becasue it keeps power in the hands of few instead of giving equal opportunity for all.

26

milllennium development goals

it showed that poverty rates had been halved and about 700 million fewer people lived in extreme poverty. Subsaharan africa was the only region that this number increased

27

global inequality

systematic disparities in income, wealth, health, education, access to tech, opportunity, and power among countries, communities, and households around the world

28

infant mortality rate

the number of deaths of infants under age 1 per 1 thousand live births per year. Gives insight to health status of populations. Most developed countries are around 5 and less developed countries at 44 and least developed counties at 66

29

different theories on global inequality

world systems, dependency, modernization

30

world systems theory

conflict.
argues that the global capitalist economic system has long been shaped by a few powerful economic actors, who have constructed it in a way that facors their class interests,

31

dependency theory

conflict.
argues that the poverty of some countries is a consequence of their exploitation by wealthy states, which control the global capitalist system

32

modernization theory

functionalist
Market oriented development theory.
Asks not why some countries are poor, but why some countries are rich.
affluent states have modern institions markets and worldviews.

33

GNI-PPI

gross national income- purchasing power parity per capita.
a comparitive economic measure that uses international dollars to indicate the amount of goods and services someone could buy in the US with a given amount of money

34

High GNI-PPI

US, Canada, Norway, Switzerland, Japan. ranges from about 35 thousand to 65 thousand

35

Low GNI-PPI

Nicaragua, Kenya. less than 5 thousand

36

Middle GNI-PPI

South Korea, Estonia, Turkey, Brazil. Ranging from 10 thousand to 30 thousand.

37

world systems theory: core countries

the economically advanced, technologivally sophisticated and home to well educated skilled population. they control the majority of the worlds wealth adn reap the greatest benefits from world economic order (like trade). inclues US, Canada, the states of Western and Northern Europe, and Japan

38

world systems theory: peripheral countries

low national incomes and low levels of technological and industrial development. Many still depend on agriculture.
includes parts of Central and Latin america, asia and sub saharan africa states

39

World systems theory: semiperipheral states

shares characteristics with core and peripheral states.
China, India, Brazil.

40

race

a group of people who share a set of physical characteristics deemed by society to be socially significant

41

ethnicity

characteristics of groups associated with national origins, languages, and cultural and religious practices.

42

minority

less powerful groups who are diminated politcally and economically by a more powerful group adn oftern who experience discrimination on the basis of charachteristics deemed by the majority to be socially significant

43

conflict theory and racism

racism has provided benefits for some more poweful groups in society.

44

functionalist theory and racism

social groups held together by characteristics like language and culture (mechanical solidarity) is more durable than those held together by organic solidarity (economic interdependence)

45

interactionist theory and racism

mixed contacts are shaped by the presence of stigma, which influences the way each social interaction unfolds.

46

expulsion

the process of forcibly removing people from one part of the country. like the native americans

47

segregation

the practice of seperating people spatially or socially on the basis of race or ethnicity

48

assimilation

absorption into the dominant culture (like a melting pot)

49

cultural pluralism

the coexistence of different racial and ethnic groups is characterized by acceptance of oe anothers differences. (like a salad bowl)

50

genocide

the mass systematic destructin of a people or a nation

51

prejudice

a belief about an individual or a group that is not subject to change on the basis of evidence.

52

discrimination

the unequal treatment of individuals on the basis of their membership in a group. often targeted and intentional

53

stereotyping

the generalization of a set of characteristics to all members of a group

54

individual discrimination

over and intentional unequal treatment often based on prejudicial beliefs.

55

institutionalized discrimination

discrimination enshrined in law, public policy or common practice- it is unequal treatment that has become part of the routine operation of major social institutions like businesses schools hospitals and the government.

56

sex

the anatomical and other biological differences between males and females that originate in human genes

57

gender

the norms, roles, and behavioral characteristics associated in a given society with being male or female.

58

gender roles

the attitudes and behaviors considered appropriately masculine or feminine in a particular culture

59

socialization

by families, school

60

family

kids learn alot about socially normative gender roles from their families. the home is a "factory of gendered personalities"

61

patriarchy

any set of social relationships in which men dominate women

62

second shift

the unpaid housework women typically do after they come home from their paid employment

63

gender wage gap

the difference between the earnings of women who work full time year round as a group and those of men in the same conditions

64

glass ceiling

an artificial boundary that allows people to see the next occupational leven even as structural obstacles keep them from reaching it

65

hidden curriculum

the unspoken socialization to norms values and roles.

66

title IX

associated with increasing equity in womens access to collegiate althetic opportunities

67

feminism

the belief that social equality should exist between the sexes

68

matrix of domination

a system of social positions in which any individual may concurrently occupy a status as a member of a dominated group and a status as a member of a dominating gorup

69

brown v board of education

1954
ruled that laws segregating public schools were unconstitutional.

70

plessy v ferguson

1896
us court upheld the states right to segregate public accommodations as long as they were seperate but equal

71

liberal feminism

womens inequality is primarily the result of imperfect institutions, which can be corrected by reforms that do not fundamentally alter society itself

72

socialist feminism

womens inequality is the result of the combination of capitalistic economic relations and male domination, arguing that both must be fundamentally transformed before women can achieve equality

73

radical feminism

women's inequality underlies all other forms of inequality

74

multicultural feminism

aims to understand and end inequality for all women regardless fo race, class, nationality, age, sexual orientation, physical ability, or other characteristics

75

third wave feminism

emerged in the early 1990s. response to some shortcoming of second wave feminism. while they paid significant attention to issues like gender violence and rape they also argue that any issue a feminist finds important can and should be talked about

76

family

two or more individuals who identify themselves as being related to one another, usually by blood, marriage or adoption, and who share intimate relationships and dependency

77

monogamy

a form of marriage in which a person may have only one spouse at a time

78

polygamy

a form of marriage in which a person may have more than one spouse at a time

79

polygyny

a form of marriage in whcih a man may have multiple wives

80

polyandry

where a woman is permitted to have multiple husbands

81

antimiscegenation laws

laws prohibiting interracial sexual relations and marriage

82

endogamy

marriages are limited to partners who are members of the same social group or caste

83

extended family

social groups consisting of on e or more parents, children, adn other kin, often spanning several generations, living in the same household.

84

nuclear family

families characterized by parents living with their biological children and apart from other kin

85

functionalist theory on family

family serves the function of primary socialization. nuclear family functioned to support adult family members emotionally (personality stabilization)

86

conflict theory on family

how it might produce and reproduce inequality.
how family has reflected a conflict orientatino in its efforts to unpack and understand the family as a potential site of both positive support and unequal power.
His and her marriage lables

87

feminist theory on family

how girls learn from their mothers and vice versa.

88

data on marriage and divorce

the age of first marriage has risen.
divorce has leveled off but is still high.

89

data on living situations and household composition

lower rates of marriage and higher rates of non marital births are present in the working class and poor.

90

data on college enrollment

70%

91

data on college completion

57%

92

conflict theory on education

it reptoduces rather than reduces social stratifiction and rather than ensuring that the best people train for jobs it ensures the discovery of talent will be limited.
poor and working class kids have fewer opportunities becasue unequal access to education.

93

funtionalist theory on education

one function of mass education is to address the problem of weakened social ties by socializing members into norms and values necessary to produce and maintain social solidarity.
also socializing people in norms... fo survive and thrive.
manifest (intended) functions include transmission of general knowledge and skills needed in society and economy.
latent (unintended) functions are social norms and values.

94

interactionist theory on education

whats that schools affect students self images. ways to label students.

95

word poverty

the impoverished language environments in which some children grow up. the fewer words that were spoken to a child, the fewer they could use

96

credential society

one in which access to desirable jobs and social status depends on the possession of a certificate or diploma certifying the completion of formal education