Flashcards in Exam 2(chapters 7-12) Deck (96):
layers; systematic ranking of different groups in a hierarchy
open stratification system. a persons economic position in society associated with income, wealth and occupation. Economically based.
closed stratification system. social levels are closed. an individual remains in the social level of birth all their life
social class mobility
individual can change his or her socioeconomic position
something a person achieves through effort or lack of effort
socially significant. Cannot alter. ex) race, gender, etc.
amount of money a person earns in a given period of time. earned most commonly at a job and less commonly through investments. can come from gov't transfers(social security/disability)
net worth. It is the value of everything a person owns minus the value of everythign they owe. wealth is more important higher up the income ladder.
a society in which personal success is based on talent and individual effort. so your position in the stratification system depends primarily on your talents and efforts.
society benefits because the positions are occupied by the best qualified indis
social class categories in the US
teardrop model. bottom is underclass, next is working poor and working class. after that is the middle class and then is the upoer or capitalist class.
the bottom category a class of unemployed, unemployables, and underemployed. Hopelessly set apart from the nation at large
below the median household income. people who perform manual labor or work in low wage sectors like fod service and retail jobs
those who provide skilled services of some kind and work for someone else.
upper class. those who own or exercise substrantial financial control over large businesses, financial institutions or factories. smallest of the categories, and consists of those whose wealth adn income are dramatically greater than the rest of the population.
income vs wealth
Wealth is built up over a lifetime and passed down to the next generation, unlike income. wealth is used to create new opportunities while income pays for routine expenditures
upper middle income
14% at 80 thousand per year
30% about 45 thousand per year
capitalist class income
top 1% make about 1.5 million a year
working class income
30% about 30 thousand a year
working poor income
13% about 20 thousand a year
bottom 13% about 10 thousand a year
the ability to exercise influence on political institutions and actors in order to realize personal or group interests.
the prestige associated with social position
The functionalism perspective on stratification
stratification is functional for society as a whole
social conflict perspective on stratification
inequality weakens society as a whole and exists because it benefits those higher up. inequality is dysfuctional becasue it keeps power in the hands of few instead of giving equal opportunity for all.
milllennium development goals
it showed that poverty rates had been halved and about 700 million fewer people lived in extreme poverty. Subsaharan africa was the only region that this number increased
systematic disparities in income, wealth, health, education, access to tech, opportunity, and power among countries, communities, and households around the world
infant mortality rate
the number of deaths of infants under age 1 per 1 thousand live births per year. Gives insight to health status of populations. Most developed countries are around 5 and less developed countries at 44 and least developed counties at 66
different theories on global inequality
world systems, dependency, modernization
world systems theory
argues that the global capitalist economic system has long been shaped by a few powerful economic actors, who have constructed it in a way that facors their class interests,
argues that the poverty of some countries is a consequence of their exploitation by wealthy states, which control the global capitalist system
Market oriented development theory.
Asks not why some countries are poor, but why some countries are rich.
affluent states have modern institions markets and worldviews.
gross national income- purchasing power parity per capita.
a comparitive economic measure that uses international dollars to indicate the amount of goods and services someone could buy in the US with a given amount of money
US, Canada, Norway, Switzerland, Japan. ranges from about 35 thousand to 65 thousand
Nicaragua, Kenya. less than 5 thousand
South Korea, Estonia, Turkey, Brazil. Ranging from 10 thousand to 30 thousand.
world systems theory: core countries
the economically advanced, technologivally sophisticated and home to well educated skilled population. they control the majority of the worlds wealth adn reap the greatest benefits from world economic order (like trade). inclues US, Canada, the states of Western and Northern Europe, and Japan
world systems theory: peripheral countries
low national incomes and low levels of technological and industrial development. Many still depend on agriculture.
includes parts of Central and Latin america, asia and sub saharan africa states
World systems theory: semiperipheral states
shares characteristics with core and peripheral states.
China, India, Brazil.
a group of people who share a set of physical characteristics deemed by society to be socially significant
characteristics of groups associated with national origins, languages, and cultural and religious practices.
less powerful groups who are diminated politcally and economically by a more powerful group adn oftern who experience discrimination on the basis of charachteristics deemed by the majority to be socially significant
conflict theory and racism
racism has provided benefits for some more poweful groups in society.
functionalist theory and racism
social groups held together by characteristics like language and culture (mechanical solidarity) is more durable than those held together by organic solidarity (economic interdependence)
interactionist theory and racism
mixed contacts are shaped by the presence of stigma, which influences the way each social interaction unfolds.
the process of forcibly removing people from one part of the country. like the native americans
the practice of seperating people spatially or socially on the basis of race or ethnicity
absorption into the dominant culture (like a melting pot)
the coexistence of different racial and ethnic groups is characterized by acceptance of oe anothers differences. (like a salad bowl)
the mass systematic destructin of a people or a nation
a belief about an individual or a group that is not subject to change on the basis of evidence.
the unequal treatment of individuals on the basis of their membership in a group. often targeted and intentional
the generalization of a set of characteristics to all members of a group
over and intentional unequal treatment often based on prejudicial beliefs.
discrimination enshrined in law, public policy or common practice- it is unequal treatment that has become part of the routine operation of major social institutions like businesses schools hospitals and the government.
the anatomical and other biological differences between males and females that originate in human genes
the norms, roles, and behavioral characteristics associated in a given society with being male or female.
the attitudes and behaviors considered appropriately masculine or feminine in a particular culture
by families, school
kids learn alot about socially normative gender roles from their families. the home is a "factory of gendered personalities"
any set of social relationships in which men dominate women
the unpaid housework women typically do after they come home from their paid employment
gender wage gap
the difference between the earnings of women who work full time year round as a group and those of men in the same conditions
an artificial boundary that allows people to see the next occupational leven even as structural obstacles keep them from reaching it
the unspoken socialization to norms values and roles.
associated with increasing equity in womens access to collegiate althetic opportunities
the belief that social equality should exist between the sexes
matrix of domination
a system of social positions in which any individual may concurrently occupy a status as a member of a dominated group and a status as a member of a dominating gorup
brown v board of education
ruled that laws segregating public schools were unconstitutional.
plessy v ferguson
us court upheld the states right to segregate public accommodations as long as they were seperate but equal
womens inequality is primarily the result of imperfect institutions, which can be corrected by reforms that do not fundamentally alter society itself
womens inequality is the result of the combination of capitalistic economic relations and male domination, arguing that both must be fundamentally transformed before women can achieve equality
women's inequality underlies all other forms of inequality
aims to understand and end inequality for all women regardless fo race, class, nationality, age, sexual orientation, physical ability, or other characteristics
third wave feminism
emerged in the early 1990s. response to some shortcoming of second wave feminism. while they paid significant attention to issues like gender violence and rape they also argue that any issue a feminist finds important can and should be talked about
two or more individuals who identify themselves as being related to one another, usually by blood, marriage or adoption, and who share intimate relationships and dependency
a form of marriage in which a person may have only one spouse at a time
a form of marriage in which a person may have more than one spouse at a time
a form of marriage in whcih a man may have multiple wives
where a woman is permitted to have multiple husbands
laws prohibiting interracial sexual relations and marriage
marriages are limited to partners who are members of the same social group or caste
social groups consisting of on e or more parents, children, adn other kin, often spanning several generations, living in the same household.
families characterized by parents living with their biological children and apart from other kin
functionalist theory on family
family serves the function of primary socialization. nuclear family functioned to support adult family members emotionally (personality stabilization)
conflict theory on family
how it might produce and reproduce inequality.
how family has reflected a conflict orientatino in its efforts to unpack and understand the family as a potential site of both positive support and unequal power.
His and her marriage lables
feminist theory on family
how girls learn from their mothers and vice versa.
data on marriage and divorce
the age of first marriage has risen.
divorce has leveled off but is still high.
data on living situations and household composition
lower rates of marriage and higher rates of non marital births are present in the working class and poor.
data on college enrollment
data on college completion
conflict theory on education
it reptoduces rather than reduces social stratifiction and rather than ensuring that the best people train for jobs it ensures the discovery of talent will be limited.
poor and working class kids have fewer opportunities becasue unequal access to education.
funtionalist theory on education
one function of mass education is to address the problem of weakened social ties by socializing members into norms and values necessary to produce and maintain social solidarity.
also socializing people in norms... fo survive and thrive.
manifest (intended) functions include transmission of general knowledge and skills needed in society and economy.
latent (unintended) functions are social norms and values.
interactionist theory on education
whats that schools affect students self images. ways to label students.
the impoverished language environments in which some children grow up. the fewer words that were spoken to a child, the fewer they could use