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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (61):
1

Religion

A system of common beliefs and rituals centered on sacred things that unites believers and provides a sense of meaning and purpsoe

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Durkeim's sacred

the part of the world which is set apart from the ordinary, the sphere endowed with spiritual meaning.

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Marx's views

religion serves the interests of the ruling class by proving an outlet for human misery that obscures the true sources of suffering among the subordinate classes.

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World Stats on numbers of followers of religions

Christian-33%-2.1b
Muslim-22%-1.6b
Hindu-14%-1b

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Sect

a religious organization thta splintered off from an established church in an effort to restore perceived "true" beliefs that were lost by the established religious organization

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Denomination

a church that is not formally allied with the state. the existance of denomination allows for freedom of religion

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Church

a well established religious organization that exists in a fairly harmonious relationship with the larger society

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Eccelesia

one form of a church.
formally allied with the state and is the official religion of the society

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economy of religion

the religious economy approach suggests that competition leads to increased engagement in religion

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Durkheim's profane

the part of the world which is the sphere of routine, everyday life.

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secularization

the rise in worldly thinking, particularly as seen in the rise of science, technology, and rational thought, and a simultaneous declline in th einfluence of religion

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Durkeim and secularization

he was worried about the fraying of social bonds that he believed would accompany secularization

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Marx and secularization

he saw secularization as a progressive trend.
he thought that religion diverted people from the immediate problems of daily life.

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2 forms of the church

ecclesia and denomination

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cult

a religous organization that is thoroughly unconventional with regard to the larger society.

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US stats on followers of religions

Christian-78.3%
unaffiliated-16.4%
Jewish-1.8%

17

Nation-state

a single people (a nation) governed by a political authority (a state); similar to the modern notion of country

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Three components of modern nation-states

Underlying the social organization of the modern country is a system of law.
The govts claim complet and final authority over the people who reside in the country.
People living in the country are divided between citizens and noncitizens

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Laws

the codified rules of behavior established by a government and backed by the threat of force

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Welfare state

a political order characterized by the broad provision of social and economic welfare benefits for the citizenry

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Democracy

A form of governance in which citizens are able to participate directly or indirectly in their own governance.
"Rule of the people"

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Direct democracy

All citizens fully participare in their own governance

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Representative democracy

A political system in which citizens elect representatives to govern them

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votor participation by education level

the higher education level, the higher voting participation

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When did women get the right to vote

1920

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Measurement of worldwide freedom status

The americas are mainly free except a few areas are partly free. Asia and Africa are not free. Europe is mainly free

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Three kinds of legitimate authority that state power is typically based on

traditional authority (custom and habit), rational-legal authority (belief in the law), charismatic authority (inspirational qualities of a leader)

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functionalist theories on power

the role of the govt is to mediate neutrally between competing interests. they assert that the influence of one group is usually offset by that of another group with an opposing view.

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conflict theories of state power

the state serves the interests of teh most powerful economic and political groups in society. Emphasize the importance of a power elite, structural contradictions, and the relative autonomy of state power from the economic elites.

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Health

the extent to which a person experiences a state of mental, physical and social well-being

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Preventive medicine

medicine emphasizing a healthy lifestyle that will prevent poor health before it occurs

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Four pharmocological revolutions

Vaccines, antibiotics, psychopharmaceuticals and birth control

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life expectancy by race and gender

because race and class closely intersect in the US, racial minorities suffer from poorer health than whites causing them to have lower life expectancies. inequalities start before birth, poor mothers have less access to prenatal care

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income and health

lower income people live in areas that have high levels of air pollution, greater probability of exposure to violence, less healthy diets

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infant mortality rates

black 12.6
white 5.5

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life expectancy by race and gender numbers

white male: 77
black male: 72
white woman: 81
black woman: 78

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Demography

the science of population size, distribution, and composition

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World population

7.3 Billion

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Sex selection

Parents learn the sex of their fetus prior to birth and are more likely to opt for an abortion if it is female.

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Population growth by world regions

growth projected rates.
Europe close to 0
america
asia
Africa highes around 2

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Malthus views on population

Exponential population growth.
a constant rate of population growth produces a population that grows by an increasing amount with each passing year but the food supply will not

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Marx views on population

the dominance of an economic system that enables the wealthy few to consume the world's resources at the expense o the impoverished masses.

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Tonnies: Gemeinshaft and Gesellshaft communities

Some sociologists worried about the differences between a presumably serene country life (Gemeinschaft) and the "death and decay" of city life (Gesellschaft)

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Impact of agriculture during the pre-industrial era

it caused an agricultural surplus which made it possible for cities to sustain populations where residents werent engaged primarily in farming

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Industrialization and growth rate of cities in the 19th century

cities changed from centers of trade into centers of manufacturing..

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Highways, post WW2

Shows how growth operates at a national level. 1956 National interstate and defense highway act established a highway trust fund.

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Treadmill of production

The constant and aggresive growth needed to sustain the modern economy

48

Social change

changes that occur throughout the social structure of an entire society

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Differentiation theory

The functionalist perspective. The development of increasing societal complexity throught the creation of specialized social roles and institutions.
As societies develop, they become more complex and interdependent

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Evolutionary theories

Assumed that all societies begin as simple or primitive and eventually develop into more complicated and civilized forms along a single unidirectional evolutionary path

51

Conflict perspective,

Gramsci highlighted the importance of ideas in maintaining order and oppression in society. The ruling class created a ideological hegemony which may lead people to consent to their own domination by socializing them to believe the hierarchy of power is the best way to organize society

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sports and social change

Title IX opened up unprecedented opportunities for girs to participate in organized sports. Jackie Robinson sparked social change in racial integration in the US

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social movements

a large number of people who come together in a continuing and organized effort to bring about or resist social change, and who rely at least partially on noninstitutionalized forms of political action.

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reformist social movements

seek to bring about social change within the existing economic and political system.

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revolutionary social movement

seek to fundamentally alter the existing social, political, and economic system in keeping with a vision of a new social order. frequently result from the belief that reformist approaches wont work because political/economic system is too resistant

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new social movement

fundamentally concerned with the quality of private life, often advocating large-scale changes in the way people think and act.

57

Gramsci's Idelogical hegemony

a generally accepted view of what is of value and how people should relate to their economic and social status in society

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Gramsci's organic intellectual

Those who emerge from oppressed groups to create counterhegemonies that challenge dominant ideas.

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reformist social movements examples

US civil rights,
same-sex marriage rights,
climate change,
labor movements,
International human rights

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revolutionary social movement examples

1776 US Revolutionary War,
1905 and 1917 Russuan Revolutions
1991 South African antiapartheid movement,
2010 Arab Spring

61

New social movements examples

Gay... rights movements,
Environmental movements