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Flashcards in Exam 1(chapter 1-6) Deck (81):
1

Scientific

A way of learning about the world that combines logically constructed theory and systematic observation.

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Sociology

Scientific study of human social relationships, groups, and societies.

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Sociological Imagination

The ability to grasp the relationship between individual lives and the larger social forces that shape them.
Private issues connecting to public issues.

4

Agency

The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social changes.

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Structrure

patterned social arrangements that have effects on agency. Determines or limits decisions.
Ex. Race, gender...

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Norms

Accepted social behabiors and beliefs.
what held communities together.

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Anomie

State of normlessness that occurs when people lose sight of the shared rules and values that give order and meaning to their lives. Disconnected

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Theories

Frameworks that help explain social occurences

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4 historical developments

scientific revolution
the enlightenment
industrialization
urbanization

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Scientific revolution and sociology

Comte coined the term sociology- "social physics"

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The Enlightenment and sociology

equality, liberty and fundamental human rights found a home in sociology

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The Industrial Revolution and sociology

industrialization led to social change and inequality

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Microsociology

concerning the nature of everyday human social interactions and agency on a small scale: face to face.

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Macrosociology

approach to sociology which emphasizes the analysis of social systems and populations on a large scale, at the level of social structure, and often at a necessarily high level of theoretical abstraction.

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Structural functionalist paradigm

Society is made of: interlocking systems

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Social Conflict paradigm

Society is made of: power struggles

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Symbolic interactionism paradigm

Society is made of: shared meanings

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scientific method

a way of learning about the world that combines logically constructed theory and systematic observation to probide explanations of how things work

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Deductive Reasoning

taking a broad theory and making more specific and testable hypotheses

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Inductive reasoning

starts with specific data and derives a more general theory

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hypothesis

ideas about the world that decribe possible relationshops between social phenomena

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objectivity

ability to represent the object of study accurately

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bias

a characteristic of results that systematically misrepresent the full dimensions of what is being studied.

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variable

a concept that can take on two or more possible values

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independent varianle

variables we change intentionally

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dependant variable

change as a result of our alterations to the independent variables

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popultation

the whole group of people to be studied

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sample

relatively small number of people

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validity

the concepts and measurements accurately represent what they claim to represent

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reliability

the extent to which the findings are consistent with the finding of different studies of teh same phenomenon or with the findings of the same study over time

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qualitative research

physical qualities. data that cant be quantified

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quantitative research

amounts

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correlation

the degree to which two or more variables are associated with one another

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casual relationships

a relationship between two variables in which one is the cause of the other

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spurious relationships

a correlation between two or more variables casued by another factor that isnt being measured

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survey definition

questionnaire or interviews with a group of people in person or by phone or email to determine their characteristics, opinions and behaviors

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survey benefits

versatile
used to test theories or gather simple data
good when basic info about a large pop is wanted

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participant observation benefits

good when firsthand knowledge of subjects direct experience is desired, including a deeper understanding of their lives

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experiments benefits

good when is possible to create experimental and control groups

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secondary analysis benefits

good when direct acquisition of data is not feasible or desirable because event studied occurred in the past or gathering info would be too costly

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culture

the beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group

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material culture

the physical objects that are created, embraced, or consumed by society that help shape peoples lives

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non material culture

composed of the abstract creation of human culture, including ideas about behavior and living

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language

a particular kind of symbolic system, composed of verbal, nonverbal, and sometimes written representations that are vehicles for conveying meaning

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ethnocentricism

belief tjat ones practices is at the core.
judge other cultures by the standards of our own

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cultural relativism

a worldview whereby we understand the practices of another society sociologically, in terms of that society's own norms and values and not our own.

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mores & taboos

mores are strongly held norms, the violation of which seriously offends the standards of acceptable conduct.
taboos are powerful mores, violation is unthinkable

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subcultures

cultures that exist together with a dominant culture but differ from it in some important respects

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countercultures

subculture with norms that deviate from the culture

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real culture

non material culture we actually embrace

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ideal culture

the values, norms, and behaviors that people in a given society profess to embrace, even thought the actions of the society may often contradict them.
non material culture we profess to embrace

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cultural inconsistency

a contradiction between the goals of ideal culture and the practices of real culture

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social reproduction

class status passed down through generations, values just not money

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cultural capital

wealth in the form of knowledge, ideas, verbal skills, and ways of thinking and behaving

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habitus

acting accordingly to probabilities. looking at the results of the groups around to make decisions

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socialization

the process of learning ones culture

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looking glass self and stages

the self image that results from our interpretation of other peoples view of us

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meads stages of self

I: impulsive. creative innovative unpredictable.
me: the part of self through which we see ourselves as others see us
1st stage: role playing
2nd: sig others
3rd: multiple role play
4th: generalized other

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role taking

the ability to take the roles of others in interaction

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significant other

the specific people in childrens lives and whose views have the greatest impact on the childs self evaluations (parents)

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generalized other

the sense of societys norms values by which people evaluate themselves
realizing the whole society has the same value as the significant others

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dramaturgical approach

the study of social interaction as if it were governed by the practices of theatrical performance

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resocialization

the process of altering an individuals behavior through total control of his or her environment,

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total institutions

institutions that isolate individuals from the society in order to achieve administrative control over most aspects of their lives

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transformational leaders

goes beyond routine, instilling sense of higher purpose in group members

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transactional leaders

concerned with just accomplishing groups tasks

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economic capital

consists of money and material that can be used to access valued goods and services

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social capital

personal connections and networks that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence

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groupthink

when members of a group ignore information that goes against the group consensus

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types of formal organizations

rationally designed to achieve particular objectives, often by the means of explicit rules regulations and procedures.
utilitarian coercive and normative

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bureaucracy components

specialized offices
hierarchy
impersonality in record keeping
technically competent administrative staff

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normative organization

people join of their own will to pursue morally worthwhile goals without expectation of material reward

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coercive organization

members are forced to give unquestioned obedience to authority

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utilitarian organizations

people join primarily for some material benefit they expect to receive

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bureaucracy critiques

waste and incompetience: just getting the job done
trained incapacity: go by the book
goal displacement: losing sight of the original goal

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deviance

any attitude, behavior, or condition that violates cultural norms or societal laws and results in disapproval hostility or sanction if it becomes known

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crime

an actu, usually considered deviant, that is punishable by fines imprisonment or both

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social power

ability to exert control

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functionalist perspectives on deviance

embrace the assumprion that we must examine culture, especially shared norms and values, to understand why people behave the way they do

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conflict perspectives on deviance

groups in society had different interests and access to resources. assumes groups with power will use that power to maintain conrol in society

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interactionist perspectives on deviance

provide a language and framework for looking at how deviance is constructed including how indis are connected to the social structure. labeling