Flashcards in Exam 1(chapter 1-6) Deck (81):
A way of learning about the world that combines logically constructed theory and systematic observation.
Scientific study of human social relationships, groups, and societies.
The ability to grasp the relationship between individual lives and the larger social forces that shape them.
Private issues connecting to public issues.
The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social changes.
patterned social arrangements that have effects on agency. Determines or limits decisions.
Ex. Race, gender...
Accepted social behabiors and beliefs.
what held communities together.
State of normlessness that occurs when people lose sight of the shared rules and values that give order and meaning to their lives. Disconnected
Frameworks that help explain social occurences
4 historical developments
Scientific revolution and sociology
Comte coined the term sociology- "social physics"
The Enlightenment and sociology
equality, liberty and fundamental human rights found a home in sociology
The Industrial Revolution and sociology
industrialization led to social change and inequality
concerning the nature of everyday human social interactions and agency on a small scale: face to face.
approach to sociology which emphasizes the analysis of social systems and populations on a large scale, at the level of social structure, and often at a necessarily high level of theoretical abstraction.
Structural functionalist paradigm
Society is made of: interlocking systems
Social Conflict paradigm
Society is made of: power struggles
Symbolic interactionism paradigm
Society is made of: shared meanings
a way of learning about the world that combines logically constructed theory and systematic observation to probide explanations of how things work
taking a broad theory and making more specific and testable hypotheses
starts with specific data and derives a more general theory
ideas about the world that decribe possible relationshops between social phenomena
ability to represent the object of study accurately
a characteristic of results that systematically misrepresent the full dimensions of what is being studied.
a concept that can take on two or more possible values
variables we change intentionally
change as a result of our alterations to the independent variables
the whole group of people to be studied
relatively small number of people
the concepts and measurements accurately represent what they claim to represent
the extent to which the findings are consistent with the finding of different studies of teh same phenomenon or with the findings of the same study over time
physical qualities. data that cant be quantified
the degree to which two or more variables are associated with one another
a relationship between two variables in which one is the cause of the other
a correlation between two or more variables casued by another factor that isnt being measured
questionnaire or interviews with a group of people in person or by phone or email to determine their characteristics, opinions and behaviors
used to test theories or gather simple data
good when basic info about a large pop is wanted
participant observation benefits
good when firsthand knowledge of subjects direct experience is desired, including a deeper understanding of their lives
good when is possible to create experimental and control groups
secondary analysis benefits
good when direct acquisition of data is not feasible or desirable because event studied occurred in the past or gathering info would be too costly
the beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group
the physical objects that are created, embraced, or consumed by society that help shape peoples lives
non material culture
composed of the abstract creation of human culture, including ideas about behavior and living
a particular kind of symbolic system, composed of verbal, nonverbal, and sometimes written representations that are vehicles for conveying meaning
belief tjat ones practices is at the core.
judge other cultures by the standards of our own
a worldview whereby we understand the practices of another society sociologically, in terms of that society's own norms and values and not our own.
mores & taboos
mores are strongly held norms, the violation of which seriously offends the standards of acceptable conduct.
taboos are powerful mores, violation is unthinkable
cultures that exist together with a dominant culture but differ from it in some important respects
subculture with norms that deviate from the culture
non material culture we actually embrace
the values, norms, and behaviors that people in a given society profess to embrace, even thought the actions of the society may often contradict them.
non material culture we profess to embrace
a contradiction between the goals of ideal culture and the practices of real culture
class status passed down through generations, values just not money
wealth in the form of knowledge, ideas, verbal skills, and ways of thinking and behaving
acting accordingly to probabilities. looking at the results of the groups around to make decisions
the process of learning ones culture
looking glass self and stages
the self image that results from our interpretation of other peoples view of us
meads stages of self
I: impulsive. creative innovative unpredictable.
me: the part of self through which we see ourselves as others see us
1st stage: role playing
2nd: sig others
3rd: multiple role play
4th: generalized other
the ability to take the roles of others in interaction
the specific people in childrens lives and whose views have the greatest impact on the childs self evaluations (parents)
the sense of societys norms values by which people evaluate themselves
realizing the whole society has the same value as the significant others
the study of social interaction as if it were governed by the practices of theatrical performance
the process of altering an individuals behavior through total control of his or her environment,
institutions that isolate individuals from the society in order to achieve administrative control over most aspects of their lives
goes beyond routine, instilling sense of higher purpose in group members
concerned with just accomplishing groups tasks
consists of money and material that can be used to access valued goods and services
personal connections and networks that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence
when members of a group ignore information that goes against the group consensus
types of formal organizations
rationally designed to achieve particular objectives, often by the means of explicit rules regulations and procedures.
utilitarian coercive and normative
impersonality in record keeping
technically competent administrative staff
people join of their own will to pursue morally worthwhile goals without expectation of material reward
members are forced to give unquestioned obedience to authority
people join primarily for some material benefit they expect to receive
waste and incompetience: just getting the job done
trained incapacity: go by the book
goal displacement: losing sight of the original goal
any attitude, behavior, or condition that violates cultural norms or societal laws and results in disapproval hostility or sanction if it becomes known
an actu, usually considered deviant, that is punishable by fines imprisonment or both
ability to exert control
functionalist perspectives on deviance
embrace the assumprion that we must examine culture, especially shared norms and values, to understand why people behave the way they do
conflict perspectives on deviance
groups in society had different interests and access to resources. assumes groups with power will use that power to maintain conrol in society