Exam 2- Motor control Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2- Motor control Deck (84):
1

3 stages for motor

~motor control
~motor learning
~motor development

2

Motor Control

~The ability to regulate the mechanisms of movement
~The ability to maintain and change posture and movement
~Is the results of neurological and mechanical processes

3

Motor Learning

~The process that bring about the change in motor performance as a result of practice and experience
~Control will become learning

4

Motor Development

~Learning will become development
~Athletes have developed things
~Walking, rolling over, sit to stand, etc have been learned to develop over our years
**If a person has a stroke, that person has to relearn it (start over)
**Have to relearn the motor side again even though they know what it is like to do these tasks

5

How long does motor control last?

milliseconds

6

How long will it take to get motor learning?

hours, days, weeks depending on what you are learning

7

How long to get to motor development?

Takes months, years, decades

8

What are the 3 major categories of movement?

~individual
~task
~environment
*Bringman liked this

9

What are the 3 subcategories of Individual?

~Action
~Perception
~Cognition

10

Details on action of individual

~The specific task that you do; how the individual actually moves
~How do we do this task; what muscle do we use

11

Detail on perception of individual

~The sensory input the person is receiving while doing the movement
~How much input do we use- how much force for writing; etc

12

Details on cognition of individual

~Why are they doing it; reasoning behind the task
~How much attention are they giving to the task
~Emotions/ motivations- why are they doing the task (walking their child down the aisle)

13

What are the 3 subcategories of Task?

~mobility
~stability
~manipulation

14

Details on mobility of task

is the person mobile enough to do this task (ROM)

15

Details on stability of task

are you stable enough to do the task

16

Details on manipulation of task

~As other demands are applied to the task, is the person able to adjust to the task
~The ability to react and maintain

17

What are the 4 subcategories of Environment?

~regulatory
~non-regulatory
~predictable
~non-predictable

18

details on regulatory of environment

~Your task must conform to the env
~Walking a flat surface- staying on that surface (or staying in bounds at a basketball game)

19

details on non-regulatory of environment

~When there are outside forces that can cause a distraction
~All the distractions (fans distracting during a free throw; a person talking to you while walk)

20

details on predictable of environment

the env is always constant

21

details on non-predictable of environment

the env is not always constant

22

what are the 3 theories that were talked about?

~reflex
~top down
~systems

23

Details on reflex theory

~Complex movements can be explained by series ind reflex that causes movements
~Can be explained by stimuli
~Doesn’t give you top down control- just reflexive movements
~Doesn’t explain new movements
~If every time we touch something hot, we would jump back-reflex (But we can override a reflex)

24

Details on top down theory

~Another name is Hierarchical
~We have primitive reflexes and then we incorporate them
~We give all actions to the brain
~This would mean everything would have to go to the brain
~However, we still have reflexes that just enter the spine and cause an immediate response (When you step on a pin, just in the spine)

25

Details on Systems theory

~We can put all our systems work together to cause the movement
~Don’t worry about these theories too much

26

Which theory was feedback introduced in?

system theory

27

Details about feedback

~Allows the ind to know if previous attempts have been successful and to adapt accordingly
~Can have internal feedback to know how you are doing while you are doing the task

28

What are the two loops in feedback?

~open
~closed

29

Open feedback loops

~Not a real loop
~Have to wait until the movement is completed
~Playing golf- don’t know how you did until after the swing was over; throwing a ball

30

Closed feedback loops

~It’s a constant feedback (circular loop)
~As you are playing a game, you are constantly getting feedback on how you are doing and able to adjust how you are playing
~In a controlled manner, we get the feedback in, get more information in, adjust, etc

31

4 big concepts of motor learning

~Learning is the process of acquiring the capability of skilled action
~Results from experience or practice or both
~Motor learning cannot be measured directly- it can only be measured indirectly; can infer from behavior of their actions
~Learning produces relatively permanent changes in a behavior, thus short term adaptations in behavior are not thought of as learning but are thought of as performance (Until it is a constant behavior, it is not learned)

32

Phase of motor learning (3)

~cognitive
~associative
~autonomous

33

Details on cognitive phase of motor learning

~The task is new or the way they have to do the task is new
~The ind’s task may be new (stroke- new body, peds- young and have never done it)
~Learning what to do- imagery is important! (Have the patient visualize the task)
~Patient may not get past this phase; may always need help with this

34

Details on associative phase of motor learning

~How we learn to do the task
~Error detection; after each attempt of the task, we should be fine tuning the task
~This is where frustration can be a stumbling block
~Have to do something 300 times to remember it

35

Details on autonomous phase of motor learning

~Task has been mastered and can be carried out with little attention
~Driving- we don’t even think about it
~Change comes very slowly; it’s hard to change if you are doing a task incorrectly

36

Details on poor form

~Form fatigue
~You want to stop them before the pts are doing the wrong way
~You will be reinforcing the incorrect way
~You do not want them to learn the wrong way in associative phase, which will then become autonomous phase

37

Intrinsic feedback

how did the movement feel

38

Extrinsic feedback

~what were the results of the movement
~did it produce a positive results; what did the coach/ PT say about the results

39

What is KR?

knowledge of results

40

details on KR

~A type of extrinsic feedback
~What was the outcome of the action
~Optimal delay before you give feedback- 3 sec

41

positive and negative of giving constant feedback

~positive- learn faster because you are constantly getting feedback
~negative- have a harder time retaining the results

42

positive and negative of varied feedback

~positive- you will remember more
~negative- will take longer to learn

43

details on summed feedback

~go through everything at the end
~giving a lot of feedback each time at the end

44

details on faded feedback

~ give more in the beginning and then start to give less by the end
~let the pt become more independent

45

What does KP stand for?

knowledge of performance

46

details on KP

~Will tell what part you are doing well in, as well as the negative feedback
~Will end on a good note, but give positive feedback so that they know that they are at least doing something right

47

what is feed forward?

~To tell them about what they were doing wrong beforehand, so you remind them how to do it correct
~When they keep making mistakes and give feedback after; not correcting- try feed forward

48

Massed practice

~Practice time is greater than rest time
~Good: More reps, learn it quicker
~Bad: high risk of injury

49

Distributed practice

~Rest is greater than or equal to practice time
~Good: won’t get as tired, won’t get form fatigue, less chance of injury
~Bad: will learn slower

50

variable practice

~Will be changing some aspect of the task
~Are able to apply it to many different tasks (more variable)

51

constant practice

~Will do the same task, everything is the same
~Good for one specific activity, but they don’t apply it to other tasks
~Often good for the beginning of learning a new task
~Takes less time to learn, but is not very transferrable

52

blocked practice

~Will in blocks of the same tasks
~Will do 10 reps of this, 15 reps of that, walk for 5 min, etc
~Will be able to perform better

53

random practice

~Will do random/integrated tasks
~The tasks are more fluid (like life is)
~Will be able to learn better

54

what type of practice is best before the pt is ready to return home?

~massed
~variable
~random
*should be like a normal day

55

Whole practice

~the whole task
~gait

56

Part practice

~part of the task
~weight shift, step, hip flexion, DF, etc

57

reverse order practice

~If the last step of supine to side lying are ok, but the first are not; can break it down and do just the last few step (plus one more)
~keep working on it until you have all parts

58

carryover

~Does my pt remember what we worked on last time and are able to complete the task next visit
~The pt is able to complete when working with pt by the end of a pt session, but does not remember the previous day; every day is like a new day

59

contextual interference

The ability to learn something from one task and take the task out of context to be able learn another similar task

60

mental practice

~Imagery
~Visualize the task; have the pt just sit there and think about it
~cardiovascular training through imagery

61

guidance

~Guiding/ Talking though the pts through the tasks

62

ways to help guild/ train the pts

~written
~verbal
~visual
~tactile

63

Non associative learning

~A repetitive single stimulus
~Can habituate (get used to and ignore; ignore child saying mommy, mommy, mommy) or sensitize (not used to it at the time and will react; wake up to a sound in the middle of the night)

64

associative learning

~Associative one aspect of a movement with an attribute of another to become an integrated whole
~If this, than that

65

procedural learning

~Once a task is learned, it will become second nature; it is a procedural- it is learned
~You don’t have to think about it any more

66

declarative learning

~It is more intentional, we have to think more about it when we are doing the task
~When we are learning it, we have to think more about

67

Who created the stages of development?

erikson

68

what are the 8 stages of development?

~infant
~late infant
~childhood
~school age
~adolescence
~early adult
~middle adult
~late adult

69

What is the stage associated with infant?

trust vs mistrust

70

What is the stage associated with late infancy?

autonomy vs shame or doubt

71

What is the stage associated with childhood?

initiative vs guilt

72

What is the stage associated with school age?

industry vs inferiority

73

What is the stage associated with adolescence?

identity vs role confusion

74

What is the stage associated with early adult?

intimacy vs role confusion

75

What is the stage associated with middle adult?

generativity vs stagnation

76

What is the stage associated with late adult?

ego integrity vs disperse

77

Other details on infant stage

~Self-trust and attachment issues
~will attach to certain people and hate others

78

other details on late infancy stage

~Independence and self control
~Are they able to do thing on their own

79

other details on childhood stage

~Initiation of own activity
~Are you driven to do this or do you have to guilt them to do this?

80

other details on school age stage

~Working on projects for recognition
~Being ind/ doing things on their own or are you as good as your peers
~Rubrics; short term, long term goals

81

other details on adolescence stage

~Sense of self (physically, socially, sexually)
~Middle school/ high school
~Time bomb- find out how you should word everything

82

other details on early adult stage

Relationship with significant other
~You are a relationship if the pt is isolated

83

other details on middle adult stage

~Guiding the next generation
~You are bettering society or your are just working- not really going the way you thought it was going to be (depression- pain amped, tired)

84

other details on late adult stage

~Elderly
~Sense of wholeness, vitality, wisdom
~Can you still hold on the positives or do you start to think that you are just going down hill