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Flashcards in Exam 2 quizzes Deck (117)
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1
Q

ch. 9 - Major sources of water in the continental hydrologic comes from

A
  • evaporation from oceans at 20 to 40 degrees north and south
2
Q

What is the major source of water that falls as precipitation in the southeastern United States?

A
  • the Atlantic Ocean near the Caribbean Islands
3
Q

Locally, the climate may differ from that dictated simply by latitude (position N or S of the equator) because of

A
  • all of the above (mountain ranges that alter atmospheric flow patterns, cold and warm surface currents in the oceans, high elevations
4
Q

Much carbon dioxide was removed from Earth’s original atmosphere by

A
  • forming calcite (CaCO3) and other carbonate minerals in limestones
5
Q

What is major source of water that falls as precipitation on the WESTERN US?

A
  • the NW Pacific ocean
6
Q

With regard to global atmospheric circulation, moist warm air ascends in the

A
  • equatorial regions
7
Q

Most of the world’s major deserts are located in the

A
  • subtropical high-pressure belts
8
Q

The source of energy the “fuels” motion in the ocean-atmosphere system is

A
  • solar energy
9
Q

The most imp. Layer of the atmosphere for geologic development of the surface is the

A
  • troposphere bc that is where weather and the decay of rocks occurs
10
Q

Which of the following gasses makes up the greatest % of the earth’s atmosphere?

A
  • Nitrogen (N2)
11
Q

The atmosphere is divided into several layers based on temp. gradients - in order upward they are

A
  • troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, magnetosphere
12
Q

The ocean has two important layers. Which is true of the upper layer as compared to the lower layer?

A
  • the upper layer is well-mixed and turbulent
13
Q

A geologist drills down into the continental crust and discovers this sequence of sedimentary rocks. Glacial tillite-stream sediments-sand dunes-coal and shale - assuming the changes were caused by the movement of the continent, which was the continent moving?

A
  • toward a pole
14
Q

The major dissolved constituent of the ocean is

A
  • NaCl (Salt)
15
Q

Which of the following minerals is most stable at earth’s surface?

A
  • Quartz
16
Q

During ___ weathering, the original minerals can be destroyed, and new minerals formed that are stable at earth’s surface

A
  • Chemical
17
Q

Joints aid in chemical weathering by

A
  • increasing the surface area exposed to weathering agents
18
Q

Which of the following common rock-forming minerals weathers to form most of the clay found in soils and regolith?

A
  • Feldspar
19
Q

The products of wedging often accumulate at the bases of cliffs to form piles of angular rock fragments called

A
  • Talus
20
Q

After granite has weathered and most of the igneous minerals have been altered to other minerals, which igneous mineral will probably NOT have been affected?

A

Quartz

21
Q

The minerals hematite and limonite result from the chemical weathering of iron-rich minerals like olivine or pyrite by what process?

A

oxidation

22
Q

Which of the following common rocks would be most susceptible to chemical weathering?

A

limestone

23
Q

Chem. weathering would progress most rapidly in which location?

A

Northern South America

24
Q

How is ice wedging important in preparing rocks for chemical weathering?

A

it enlarges fractures and cracks, therby inc. the surface area of the rock

25
Q

the general term for the blanket of loose rock debris that covers large areas of Earth’s surface is

A

regolith

26
Q

a talus accumulation consists largely of

A

coarse, angular rock fragments

27
Q

which is NOT a type of physical weathering

A

a conversion of feldspar minerals to clay and soluble material (frost action, exfoliation/unloading, tree roots - all area phys. w)

28
Q

ice wedging would be most effective in

A

areas where freezing and thawing occur many times a year

29
Q

weathering is a near-surface phenomenon, but in somer egions chem. decpomosition may operate tens of meters below the surface if

A

the rocks are highly fractured

30
Q
  1. Where would you expect to see solifluction?
A

Siberia

31
Q

Which of the following factors decreases the risk of mass movement?

A
  • adding vegetation to the side of a hill
32
Q

The type of mass movement shown in the drawing is

A

mud flow

33
Q

in this cross section of a valley, Slope A is

A

Stable - there are no planes of weakness sloping toward the highway

34
Q

which of the following types of mass movement takes place most gradually?

A

creep

35
Q

the immediate cause of incidents of mass movement is

A

graviation

36
Q

the principal diff. btwn a lahar and a muflow is

A

former mass contains pyroclastic debris from a volcanic eruption

37
Q

type of mass movement shown in pircture is (have it)

A

rockslide

38
Q

in this cross section, slobe B is likely to be

A

unstable bc of bedding plane slippage

39
Q

which of the following types of mass movement travels down a curved surface?

A

slump

40
Q

which of the following dactors DECREASES risk of mass movement

A

adding vegetation to the side of a hill

41
Q

which of the following INCREASES risk of mass movement

A

Flooding the sediment with water beyond saturation

42
Q

what stripped the slope (in middle of photo) of trees and other vegetation?

A

a large landslide

43
Q
  1. as the velocity of flow decreases…
A

ALL OF THE ABOVE

  • –flow tends to become more laminar
  • -the maximum flow velocity decreases
  • -suspended sediment starts to be deposited
44
Q

the lowest elevation to which a stream can down cut is the

A

base level

45
Q

illustration of point bar

A

D

46
Q

which creates this (picture) unique river pattern?

A

a braided stream has more sediment than it can carry

47
Q

what explains the shape of this delta?

A

its shape was made by fluvial (River) deposition

48
Q

the flat-lying area surrounding a river channel is termed the

A

floodplain

49
Q

braided streams

A

consist of a series of intertwined channels that are overloaded with sediment

50
Q

within a meander, where is sediment most likely to be deposited?

A

point bar

51
Q

a delta is part of the ___ part of a stream

A

distributary

52
Q

drainage off of an isolated volcano will follow a ___ pattern

A

radial

53
Q

urbanization increases the amount of runoff within stream systems T/F

A

TRUE

54
Q

flow within a stream system is most commonly

A

turbulent

55
Q

a watershed is the total area drained by a given stream system T/F

A

TRUE

56
Q

alluvial fans tend to form where

A

streams flow into dry basins in arid regions

57
Q
  1. Pumping vast quantities of water locally -
A

lowers the ocal water table, forming a cone-shaped depression

58
Q

water flowing from hot springs

A

contains more dissolved minerals than does water flowing from cool springs

59
Q

the zone below the water table is the zone of

A

saturation

60
Q

groundwaer erodes by

A

solution

61
Q

map of Anvil Cave, Alabama - growth of vace system probably controlled by

A

distribution of fractures along which ground water flowed

62
Q

this block diagram shows a karst area - choose which leter represents a SINK HOLE

A

A

63
Q

the majority of fresh liquid water on earth exists in

A

pores within rock and sediment

64
Q

the topography of the water table

A

is a subdued (less steeply sloping) mimic of surface topography

65
Q

the ability of a porous solid to transmit fluid is called

A

permeability

66
Q

the water table is

A

the surface that marks tehh top of the saturated zone

67
Q

excessive pumping of a well

A

ALL OF THE ABOVE (will create a cone of depression, may cause saltwater invation in coastal areas, may cause adjacent wells to become dry, will lower the water table locally)

68
Q

groundwater discharge occurs at

A

ALL OF THE ABOVE

  • -wells
  • -geysers
  • -springs
  • -streams
69
Q

the cone of depression surrounding a well

A

enlarges and deepens as the rate of pumping increases

70
Q

the block diagram shows a karst area

–choose CAVE

A

B

71
Q

human manipulation of the groundwater system may result in:

A

ALL OF THE ABOVE

  • -chemical changes
  • -change in water table level
  • -salt water invasion
  • -subsidence
72
Q

sinkholes are a concern for residents whose dwellings are constructed atop

A

limestone

73
Q
  1. sediment deposited directly by glaciers as they melt are characterized by
A

very poor sorting

74
Q

large continental glaciers are found today in

A

greenland and Antarctica

75
Q

Cirques and horns are features associated with

A

mountain glaciation

76
Q

the first scientist to theorize the past presence of glaciers in Europe was

A

Louis Agassiz

77
Q

at the present, glaciers cover about ___ of the surface of continents

A

10%

78
Q

sediment deposited directly by glaciers as they melt are termed

A

till

79
Q

when sea level rises, causing the ocean to fill a glacially carved valley, a __ results

A

fjord

80
Q

valleys carved by glaciers tend to be shaped like the letter ___ and valleys carved by water are shaped like the letter ___

A

U - glaciers

V - water

81
Q

a lake that forms within a bowl-shaped depression formed by a mountain glacier is called a

A

tarn

82
Q

during glacial epoch, global sea level is

A

lower bc water is stored on the continents

83
Q

ice is a substance with a high albedo, meaning it

A

relfects most of the light that falls upon it

84
Q

the current interglacial interval began a little more than ___ years ago

A

10,000

85
Q

an imp. long-term factor determining whether glacial ice will form on the continentes has likely been the proportion of which gas in the atmosphere

A

carbon dioxide

86
Q

look at picture - where in this pic. does the total ann. amount of snow fall exceed teh total annual am. of snow melting?

A

E

87
Q

Lake Bonneville was the predecessor of

A

Great Salt Lake

88
Q
  1. which stmt. is NOT a good description of ocean waves
A

water particles in waves move along at the same velocity as the wave

GOOD

  • -wave height is the vertical distance btwn crest and trough
  • -energy is imparted to waves by winds
  • -waves originate by the frictional action of wind on water
  • -wave refraction causes irregular distribution of energy along the coast
89
Q

longshore drift moves water and sediment

A

along the beach in a zig-zag path

90
Q

which of the following is most likely in the evolution of coastal features

A

sea cave, sea arch, sea stack, sea cliff

91
Q

an atoll normally

A

evolves from a fringe or barrier reeg

92
Q

the major force in the generation of tides is

A

the gravitational pull of the moon

93
Q

what percentage of seawater, on ave. consists of dissolved salt ions

A

3.5%

94
Q

in this drawing, the net movement of sand is

A

up the coast (toward the upper side)

95
Q

photo of Washington shorelines is a

A

wave-cut platform

96
Q

if you found ancient rocks in Antarctica that had formed in an organic reef, what could you suggest?

A

that the climate has changes and that Antarctica has moved

97
Q

the path of movement of water particle in a wave at sea is

A

circular

98
Q

the horizontal distance btwn two successive waves’ crests is called

A

wave length

99
Q

ordinary ocean waves derive their energy from

A

winds

100
Q

which of the following is NOT a depositional feature

A

sea stack

ARE (spit, beach, barrier island, baymouth bar)

101
Q

these drawings show stages of evolution for coastline - what is the order?

A

CABD

102
Q

what % of earth’s surface is covered with water?

A

70%

103
Q

when sea level rises, the ocean may invade a river valley, producing a nearshore body of water of mixed and variable salinity called

A

estuary

104
Q
  1. in general, the dominant erosional landforms in desert regions are developed by
A

running water

105
Q

ventifacts are a product of

A

abrasion

106
Q

wind transports materal by

A

all of the above

–rolling, saltation, sliding, suspension

107
Q

these dunes formed where?

A

sand supply was limited

–called BARCHAN dunes

108
Q

the type of dune formed by winds blowing from at least 3 diff. directions is a

A

star

109
Q

to qualify as a desert, a region must be

A

arid, with less tha 25 c, annual precipitation and very low relative humidity

110
Q

as compared to humid climates, rates of chemical weathering in deserts are

A

slower

111
Q

saltation of sand involves

A

grains hopping into the air, traveling for a short distance and returning to the ground

112
Q

which stmt does NOT apply? desertification occurs

A

only in small reas affecting at most a few million ppl of central Africa

DOES APPLY (Desertification occurs)

  • -when continents move into dry climates in low latitude zones
  • -as a result of global climate change
  • -as a result of overgrazing
  • -when humans strip a landscape for firewood
113
Q

which of the following is eolian in origin

A

loess

114
Q

the wind direction at the time that these ancient sand dunes were deposited was

A

from the left

115
Q

a lag deposit, or desert pavement, is a concentration of

A

gravel-size particles left behind as wind selectively moves sand and dust from the surface

116
Q

the migration of sand dunes results from

A

erosion of sand on the windward side and depostion on the slip face

117
Q

globaly most deserts are found

A

A and B

  • -above 66 defrees north and south latitude (near poles)
  • -near 30 defrees N and 30 S latitude (subtropics)