Exam 2 Study Guide - Deck 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 Study Guide - Deck 1 Deck (47):

What is peptic ulcer disease?

It occurs when open sores develop on the inside lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus.


What are the signs and symptoms of peptic ulcer disease?

1. burning pain (worse at night)
2. nausea
3. vomiting
4. tarry black stools.


What causes peptic ulcer disease?

A bacteria called Helicobacter pylori and certain medication.


What is the treatment for peptic ulcer disease?

Goal is to kill bacteria & reduce secretion of acid in the stomach to encourage healing.
Medications: antibiotics, acid blockers, antacids.


There are ulcers that struggle to heal because of the what other factors?

1. tobacco
2. alcohol
3. NSAIDs (ibuprofen, aspirin)
4. Crohn’s disease
5. cancer
6. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (extreme overproduction of acid).


What is the appendix?

9-10 cm appendage off the cecum (1st part of the large intestine).


What is the cause of appendicitis?

Appendix opening becomes obstructed, distends, and cuts off blood supply & lymphatic drainage. Bacterial overgrowth occurs, & the appendix can burst.


What are the signs of appendicitis?

1. Pts have periumbilical pain that localizes to the RLQ
2. May have fever
3. high WBC
4. anorexia
5. nausea
6. vomiting
7. diarrhea and/or constipation
8. McBurney’s Point is tender. When abdomen is pressed, held momentarily, & then rapidly released, the pt may experience a momentary increase in pain. “Rebound tenderness” suggests inflammation has spread to the peritoneum.


How do you go about diagnosing and treating appendicitis?

Diagnosing: Imaging – CT or US.
Treatment: within 24-72 hrs after symptoms start, IMMEDIATE appendectomy.
IF MORE than 5 days, do IV antibiotics, IV fluids, & bowel rest. Then 8-10 weeks later, do an appendectomy.


What is the definition of IBS (irritable bowel syndrome)?

abdominal pain & discomfort w/ altered bowel habits not explained by any mechanical, biochemical, or inflammatory causes.


What are the signs and symptoms of IBS?

1. abdominal pain
2. bloating
3. constipation
4. diarrhea.


What are the alarming signs and symptoms for IBS?

1. anemia
2. chronic severe diarrhea
3. weight loss
4. fevers
5. bloody stool
6. family history of colon cancer.


How would you treat IBS?

1. education
2. reassurance
3. relaxation techniques
4. food diaries
5. increasing dietary fiber
6. regular exercise
7. antidiarrheals (Imodium)
8. antidepressants
9. antibiotics.


What is GERD/reflux?

Stomach acid or bile refluxes up the esophagus, causing pain, irritation, and inflammation.


What are the signs and symptoms of GERD/reflux?

1. heartburn
2. regurgitation
3. dysphagia
4. cough
5. chest pain
6. pain w/ swallowing
7. hypersalivation.


What causes GERD/reflux?

Lower esophageal sphincter (band of muscle) between the stomach & esophagus is too weak and stomach material slips back up the esophagus.


What to avoid if you have GERD/reflux?

1. fatty foods
2. spicy foods
3. chocolate
4. caffeine
5. onions
6. tomato sauce
7. carbonated beverages
8. mint
9. alcohol
10. large meals
11. lying down soon after eating
12. certain medications
13. cigarette smoking
sedatives, tranquilizers, & calcium blockers for high blood pressure.


How would you treat GERD/reflux?

1. lifestyle modifications
2. medications – antacids, H2 blockers reduce production of acid, proton pump inhibitors block production of acid, prokinetic agents help stomach empty faster.
3. SURGERY: recommended for those who have hiatal hernias, severe inflammation of esophagus, Barrett’s esophagus, or strictures.


How long does the average menstruation period last and when does ovulation typically occur?

Average menstruation occurs every 28 days (20-35).

Ovulation typically occurs on day 14 (may feel cramp, Mittelschmerz – “middle pain”).


Premenstrual syndrome occurs when and what are the signs and symptoms of it?

It begins several days before & at the start of menstruation.

1. depression
2. mood instability
3. water retention
4. breast tenderness.


How could you treat or help decrease the signs & symptoms of premenstrual syndrome?

1. exercise
2. antidepressants
3. birth control
4. dietary changes
5. reducing stress.



abnormally painful periods:
painful cramping during period that affects greater than 50% of all women who menstruate.


What are the signs and symptoms of Dysmenorrhea and how would you treat it?

S and S: nausea and vomiting

Treatment: exercise, yoga, massage, acupuncture, ibuprofen.


Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding:
What are the 4 different terms for this section?




infrequent (greater than 35 days apart) and/or light periods.



bleeding that last more than 7 days or is much heavier than normal.



bleeding in between periods or bleeding not related to a period.



don’t have a period.


PID Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: What is it?

infection of the lining of uterus, the fallopian tubes and/or ovaries.


What are the causes of PID?

sexually transmitted diseases that go untreated.


What are the signs and symptoms of PID?

1. abdominal and/or back pain
2. foul discharge
3. pain with intercourse
4. irregular bleeding and cramps
5. tactile fever
6. chills
7. lymph nodes
8. weakness
9. depression
10. tiredness
11. nausea
12. vomiting.


How do you treat pelvic inflammatory disease?

antibiotics, hospitalizations. Must always treat partner who is also carrying organism that caused PID.


What is hematuria?

Blood in the urine


What is Gross Hematuria?

blood that can be seen in the urine. Pink, red, or cola colored urine.


What is Microscopic Hematuria?

only seen with a microscope. No symptoms.


What are the causes of Hematuria?

1. Menstruation
2. vigorous exercise
3. sexual activity
4. viral illness or trauma
5. infection
6. kidney or blater cancer
7. inflammation of kidney or any part of urinary tract
8. polycystic disease
9. blood clots
10. sickle cell disease.


What are the signs and symptoms of an UTI?

1. Cystitis - dysuria (pain w/ urination), increased frequency, and suprapubic discomfort.

2. Pyelonephritis (kidney) - localized flank pain, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, malaise, and costovertebral angle tenderness.


What are the 3 parts of the female athletic triad?

1. disordered eating
2. Loss of the monthly period (amenorrhea)
3. Bone loss (osteoporosis)


What happens in the brain and body when a female is struggling with the female triad?

The control center (hypothalamus) in the brain senses excessive exercise and disordered eating.

It tells woman’s ovaries to not ovulate because it does not want her to get pregnant.

Typically have very low body fat percentage

Lack of menstruation and low levels of estrogen leads to bone thinning.


What is testicular torsion and is it a medical emergency?

Twisting of the spermatic cord and cuts off its blood supply causing ischemia and death to the testicle - MEDICAL EMERGENCY!!
Most common in puberty, occurs because testicle lacks the normal attachment to the tunica vaginalis.


What is meningitis?

1. Inflammation of the meninges.
2. Brain is surrounded by 3 thin layers: Dura, arachnoid, and pia mater. Small space between each later.
3. Usually the arachnoid mater that causes the problem.


How is meningitis contracted?

Contracted through. . . .
1. blood
2. urine to blood
3. direct extension via sinus infection or ear infection
4. trauma
5. spinal injections


What causes meningitis?

Causes by bacteria, viral, or asceptic.


What are the signs and symptoms for meningitis?

1. fever
2. stiff neck
3. lethargy
4. photophobia
5. headache.


How do you treat meningitis?

antibiotics and vaccination.


What is epilepsy?

Someone that has reoccurring seizures (at least 2 or more times) is said to have epilepsy.

Different kinds of epilepsy based on what area of the brain is affected.


How do you treat epilepsy?

When someone is having an episode, make sure the surrounding area is clear so that they do not get injured, place them on the ground, do NOT try to restrict them.

Check to ensure they have an open airway.