Flashcards in Exam 2 Two-Way tables Deck (15):

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## Association

### Values of one variable tend to occur with certain values of another variable; detected when the conditional distributions differ from the marginal distributions and from each other.

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## Bias

### The design of a statistical study is biased if it is systematically favors certain outcomes.

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## Bivariate data

### Data collected on two variables for each individual in a study.

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## The only arithmetic operation that makes sense for categorical data is

### Counting

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## Two-Way table is a

### Table giving counts (or %) for two categorical variables

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## In two-way tables the ..... Is is a row variable, and ...... Is the column variable

### Explanatory ....response

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## Marginal distribution

### Distribution of column variable separately ( or row variable separately ) expressed in counts or percent

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## Both margins sum to the

### Same overall total

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## Conditional Distributions

### Distribution of percents under a specific condition ( either in row or column)

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## There is no association between categorical variables when all

### Conditional distributions look like the marginal distribution and each other

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## There is a potential association between categorical variables when

### One or more of the conditional distributions look very different from the marginal distributions or each other

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## Simpson's paradox happens

### When the third lurking variable is associated with the other two.

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## What is Simpson's paradox

### A situation where the relationship between two variables is in one direction when the third lurking variable is included but in the opposite direction when the the third lurking variable is ignored.

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## Measures affected by outliers

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Mean

Standard deviation

Correlation

R-sq

Slope and y-intercept

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