EXAM #3 (10-6 → ) Flashcards Preview

2016FA PATIENT CARE (R. Taylor) > EXAM #3 (10-6 → ) > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #3 (10-6 → ) Deck (113)
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1

How many prescriptions in the 70's vs. now

800 vs. >10,000

2

_____ of drugs is becoming a bigger responsibility for the technologist.

As your role increases your knowledge base needs to be broadened to include:
• Drug classification
• Drug action
• Drug interactions
• Drug reactions
• Principles and methods of administration

Preparation of drugs is becoming a bigger responsibility for the technologist.

As your role increases your knowledge base needs to be broadened to include:
• Drug classification
• Drug action
• Drug interactions
• Drug reactions
• Principles and methods of administration

3

What are drugs?

Substance used in medicine to aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease.

The science concerned with the origin,nature, effects and use of drugs is _____.

Drugs are = any chemical substance that produces a biologic response in a living system.

Substance used in medicine to aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease.

The science concerned with the origin,nature, effects and use of drugs is PHARMACOLOGY.

4

[Drug Nomenclature]

What is it?

Drugs are classified in many different ways:
• By name
• By action
• By method of legal purchase

It is classified system of names.

Drugs are classified in many different ways:
• By name
• By action
• By method of legal purchase

5

Chemical name:
• Identifies the actual _____ _____ _____

• Seldom of practical use to the technologist

Chemical name:
• Identifies the actual chemical structure complex

• Seldom of practical use to the technologist

6

Generic name:
• Name given when drug becomes commercially available

• Simpler name derived from more complex chemical name

• Easier to pronounce

• Never _____

Generic name:
• Name given when drug becomes commercially available

• Simpler name derived from more complex chemical name

• Easier to pronounce

• Never capitalized

7

Brand name:
• Name given to a drug manufactured by a specific company

• Usually short

• Easy to remember

• Always _____

Brand name:
• Name given to a drug manufactured by a specific company

• Usually short

• Easy to remember

• Always capitalized

8

What drug is cheaper? Generic or name brand?

Generic is cheaper

9

[Classification by Action]

Drugs that have similar chemical actions are grouped into categories called drug _____

According to _____ or _____

This is convenient but may not be totally reliable

One drug may have several different effects and is listed under more than one category


EXAMPLE:

_____ - drugs that relieve pain

_____ - drugs that fight inflammation

_____ - drugs used to treat high blood pressure

[Classification by Action]

Drugs that have similar chemical actions are grouped into categories called drug families

According to action or function

This is convenient but may not be totally reliable

One drug may have several different effects and is listed under more than one category


EXAMPLE:

Analgesics - drugs that relieve pain

Anti-inflammatories - drugs that fight inflammation

Antihypertensives - drugs used to treat high blood pressure

10

[Legal Classification ]

According to federal law drugs are classified as prescription or nonprescription

Prescription drugs need to be ordered by a legally authorized health practitioner.

The prescription is the document that specifies:

• _____
• _____
• _____

[Legal Classification ]

According to federal law drugs are classified as prescription or nonprescription

Prescription drugs need to be ordered by a legally authorized health practitioner.

The prescription is the document that specifies:

• Name of patient
• Name of drug
• Dosage regimen

11

Nonprescription drugs are better known as _____ _____ _____ drugs (OTC).

Can be obtained legally _____ a prescription.

Nonprescription drugs are better known as over- the - counter drugs (OTC).

Can be obtained legally without a prescription.

12

{*} No matter the legal classification, all medications administered to a patient must have an _____!

For example – even though Tylenol is an over the counter (OTC) medication, an _____ would be required!

No matter the legal classification, all medications administered to a patient must have an order!

For example – even though Tylenol is an over the counter (OTC) medication, an order would be required!

13

[Dose Form]

The type of preparation or the manner in which the chemical agent is transported into the human body

A drug may come in may different forms

The form may determine:
Speed of _____ of the therapeutic effect

Speed of the following from slowest to fastest?
– patch
– IV
– injection
– oral

[Dose Form]

The type of preparation or the manner in which the chemical agent is transported into the human body

A drug may come in may different forms

The form may determine:
Speed of onset of the therapeutic effect

SLOWEST TO FASTEST:
oral, patch, injection, IV

14

[Dose Forms]

Tablet -

Capsule -

Suppository -

Solution -

Suspension -

Transdermal patch -

[Dose Forms]

Tablet - compressed into a hard disc

Capsule - contained in a gelatin shell

Suppository - shaped for insertion into a body orifice - rectum, vagina, urethra

Solution - one or more drugs dissolved in a liquid carrier - administered orally or parenterally (any injection of the drug with a needle and syringe beneath the surface of the skin)

Suspension - one or more drugs in small particles are suspended in a liquid carrier - must be shaken thoroughly before administration

Transdermal patch - drug can be applied to the skin and is absorbed into the bloodstream

15

[Pharmacokinetics ]

What is it?

What are some factors that affect it?

When can contrast be added to a patient?

The study of how a drug is absorbed into the body, circulates within the body, is changed by the body, and leaves the body.

Many factors can affect these happenings:
Age, disease factors, sex, genetics, weight and route and time of administration.

Contrast can be added to a patient when their kidneys are in good working condition

16

[Drug effects on the body]

Undesirable effects:
Side effects
Toxic effects
Allergic reactions
Idiosyncratic reactions

Idiosyncratic = ?

[Drug effects on the body]

Undesirable effects:
_____ effects
_____ effects
_____ reactions
_____ reactions

Idiosyncratic = something we don’t want to happen that does anyway

17

[Drug effects on the body]

Side effects:
?

Toxic effects:
?

Allergic Reactions:
?

[Drug effects on the body]

Side effects:
Drug acting on tissues other than those intended - causes a response unrelated to the intended action

Toxic effects:
Adverse effects related to the dose of drug administered

Allergic Reactions:
Bodies immunological system is hypersensitive to the drug

18

[Drug effects on the body]

What are anaphylactic reactions

Delayed reactions usually _____ severe. May not become evident till _____ or _____ later.

[Drug effects on the body]

Immediate allergic reactions range from mild to severe (anaphylaxis) – carry epipens on person – can happen with contrast media (immediately)

Delayed reactions usually less severe. May not become evident till hours or days later.

19

[Conscious Sedation]

Used frequently in _____ to sedate for a lengthy, painful or difficult procedure

Most commonly used drugs are _____ (_____) and _____ (______)

_____ must be used with caution as can significantly _____ the respiratory system


Where does it happen most?

[Conscious Sedation]

Used frequently in radiology to sedate for a lengthy, painful or difficult procedure

Most commonly used drugs are Fentanyl (anesthetic) and Versed (antianxiety)

Fentanyl must be used with caution as can significantly depress the respiratory system


Happens most in IVR or SONO

20

[Levels of Sedation]

_____ - patient will respond normally to verbal commands

_____ (_____ _____) - depression of consciousness but patient will respond to verbal commands (_____ do this the most)

_____ - depression of consciousness in which the patient can not be easily aroused

_____ _____ - loss of consciousness

[Levels of Sedation]

Minimal - patient will respond normally to verbal commands

Moderate (conscious sedation) - depression of consciousness but patient will respond to verbal commands (Nurses do this the most)

Deep - depression of consciousness in which the patient can not be easily aroused

General anesthesia - loss of consciousness

21

{***} FIVE RIGHTS OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION

P D D T R

Right PATIENT

Right DRUG

Right DOSE

Right TIME

Right ROUTE

22

Most common routes of administration

• Oral (bust a nut in yo mouf)

• Sublingual (under tongue, immediately absorbed)

• Topical (cream + patches)

• Parenteral (IM, SC, IV)

23

Common Abbreviations

IM -
IV -
mg -
ml -
mm -
po -
prn -
SC -
Stat -

Only use abbreviations deemed acceptable by your facility

This list is usually available on the facilities Intranet

Common Abbreviations

IM - intramuscular
IV - intravenous
mg - Milligram
ml - Milliliter
mm - millimeter
po - by mouth
prn - as needed
SC - Subcutaneous
Stat - Immediately

Only use abbreviations deemed acceptable by your facility

This list is usually available on the facilities Intranet

24

[Medication Errors]

Errors associated with drug administration are among the most _____ legal problems in which radiologic technologists are involved.

If an error is made report to your _____ or _____

Follow the protocol of the facility for reporting drug _____ or drug _____ errors.


Example #1: X-ray a pt when they weren’t supposed to

Example #2: Oral/IV contrast media in error, needs to be reported to NY state

[Medication Errors]

Errors associated with drug administration are among the most common legal problems in which radiologic technologists are involved.

If an error is made report to your supervisor or physician

Follow the protocol of the facility for reporting drug charting or drug administration errors.


Example #1: X-ray a pt when they weren’t supposed to

Example #2: Oral/IV contrast media in error, needs to be reported to NY state

25

Can students inject contrast or do anything with contrast media for that matter?

NAH SON WE DON'T DO THAT

26

Normal level of BUN (blood urea nitrogen)

8-25 mg/dl

27

What is BUN (blood urea nitrogen)?

Indicator of _____ _____

Measure of _____ in _____ that comes the waste product _____

Values increase with _____ – infants have _____ values

What is BUN (blood urea nitrogen)?

Indicator of kidney function

Measure of nitrogen in blood that comes the waste product urea

Values increase with age – infants have lower values

28

Causes of high levels of BUN

Urinary tract obstruction

Kidney disease

Gastrointestinal bleed

Dehydration

Burns

Medication

High protein diets

Shock

29

Causes of low level BUN

Liver disorder

Over hydration

Malnutrition (not eating enough protein)

30

Normal value of Creatinine

0.6-1.5 mg/dl