Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

Nutrition > Exam 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (68):
1

Water Functions

Transport, Lubricant, Temperature control, Fluid/electrolyte balance, chemical solvent

2

Water IN

Metabolic, Fluid, Food

3

Water OUT

Sweat, urine, feces respiration

4

Calcium Functions

Bones, teeth, muscle contraction, blood clotting, blood pressure

5

Calcium sources

dairy

6

Calcium deficiency

Osteoporosis

7

Prevent calcium deficiency

calcium, weight bearing activity

8

risk factors osteoporosis

woman, skinny, low calcium, low activity, petite (Danielle the TA)

9

Calcium Toxicity

constipation, kidney stones, decreased absorption of other minerals

10

Magnesium Function

Muscle contraction

11

Magnesium sources

nuts, legumes, grains

12

Sodium/Potassium function

Balance each other out, fluid and electrolyte balance (potassium inside the cell, sodium outside the cell)

13

Sodium/Potassium Sources

Sodium-anything processed; Potassium-whole foods- fruits and veggies, meats, whole grains

14

Sodium toxicity

hypertension (high blood pressure)

15

Iodine function

helps with thyroid

16

iodine deficiency

goiter, baby born with cretinism. Soil must contain iodine

17

Source iodine

dairy, seafood, iodized salt (not sea salt)

18

Toxicity Iodine

NONE

19

Iron functions

carries oxygen in blood and muscles

20

Iron deficiency

anemia- pale, cranky, hard time focusing (hungry vampire)

21

Iron absorption decreased

Tannins (tea), Fiber (fruits, veggies, legumes), Phytates (fruits, veggies)

22

Iron absorption increased

Vitamin C, eating meat, fish or poultry

23

Heme iron

absorbed better, found in meat flesh, helps increase absorption of non heme

24

Non heme iron source

plants

25

How to get a Toxicity iron

too much ingestion through supplements or a genetic predisposition to absorb iron (treat through donating blood)

26

Zinc functions and sources

Helps with growth and maturation (sexual); protein

27

Selenium main function

antioxidant

28

Fluoride function and sources

Strengthens enamel; fluorinated water, fluoride treatment at dentist

29

Fluoride deficiency and toxicity

Small chance of deficiency; fluorosis (brown spots on teeth)

30

Minerals of concern- people don't get enough

Potassium, calcium, iron

31

People get too much

SODIUM

32

BMR

Basal Metabolic Rate

33

define BMR

Brain, heart, nervous system- not running, exercising or digestion

34

Increase BMR

height, growth, body composition, fever, stress (Bruce to HULK)

35

Decrease BMR

Age

36

BMI Underweight

<18.5 (too young for marriage)

37

BMI Healthy weight

18.5-24.9 (perfect for marriage)

38

BMI overweight

25-29.9 (pushing it for marriage)

39

BMI Obese

>30 (forget about it)

40

BMI Limitation

Gender, muscular. Helpful for population, not individuals

41

Apple body shape

Visceral, dangerous fat (inflammation and chronic diseases), men

42

Pear body shape

Subcutaneous fat, outside layer on thighs and bum, women

43

Waist circumference

Men

44

Obesity causes

chronic illness

45

Moderate weight loss is better than rapid because

Rapid- lose water weight and muscle; moderate- generally fat

46

Benefits of exercise

Happy, sleep better, good for heart, does not necessarily mean weight loss

47

Feasting break down of energy

Carbs- glucose then stored in liver and muscles as glycogen; Fat- fatty acids then stored as body fat; Protein- amino acids, extra nitrogen excreted as urine and AA stored as fat

48

Short term fasting energy break down

Liver/muscles break down glycogen converted to glucose and used as energy; Some fat broken into fatty acids and used as energy; about 24 hours energy without exercise

49

Longer term fasting energy break down

Glycogen gone- can't be used; protein broken into AA and then into glucose, nitrogen, and ketones; fats into fatty acids, then energy and ketones; Brains use ketones for energy, body uses AA as glucose

50

Ketone source

breakdown of fat- used for energy

51

Ketosis

too many ketones- changes PH of body- cause death. Fruity breath, need glucose

52

Successful weight loss

Slow, <2 lbs/week; variety of foods

53

Health at every size

acceptance, eat well, physically active; taking care of body- eating well and exercising

54

Good Diet characteristics

sustainable, lose fat, nutritionally adequate, don't cut out food groups

55

Metabolic Fitness definition

normal blood levels- blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin, blood pressure

56

Anorexia characteristics

Distorted body image, structured and specific diet, low calorie intake, self-starvation, thin, praised by others

57

Bulimia characteristics

Reoccurring episodes of binging and purging- laxatives or throwing up; know behavior is wrong; any size of body

58

Binge-eating disorder

Binge, no compensation; extreme guilt; generally overweight

59

Female athlete triad

Restrictive dieting leads to Amenorrhea (no menstruation) which can both lead to osteoporosis

60

Physical activity guidelines

Every day- stretching/flexibility; 5x a week (moderate 150 min or vigorous 75 min); 2x a week: strength

61

Fuels at rest

Fat

62

Fuels anaerobic activity

Glycogen- no O2 available; limited energy- not available

63

Fuels Aerobic activity

Carbs, fatty acids, amino acids; O2 available- more energy efficient

64

Glycogen depletion

Hitting the Wall

65

Carbs during activity

Low carb sports drink over 45 min; water if under 45 min

66

Athlete protein/vitamin needs

no supplements needed- .8 g/kg/day protein

67

Water replenishment after activity

2 cups/1 lb lost during activity

68

Pregame meal characteristics

High carb, low fat and fiber, moderate/low protein (slow down digestion), 3-4 hours before, 300-800 calories