Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (42):
1

Deposition

Gas >> Solid

2

Sublimation

Solid >> Gas

3

Condensation

Gas >> Liquid

4

Vaporization

Liquid >> Gas

5

Freezing

Liquid >> Solid

6

Melting

Solid >> Liquid

7

Water exception

Less dense solid than liquid

8

Ion Dipole

Ion + Polar Molecule

9

Dipole-dipole

Polar + Polar molecule

10

Hydrogen Bonds

Dipole-dipole with H and:
- N
- O
- F

11

Dispersion forces

Weak IMFs

12

NON POLAR ELEMENT TRENDS

Bigger atoms >> bigger forces >> higher boiling point

13

IMF forces stronger in ____

long (chain) molecules than ball-like structures (tangles)

14

"Viscous"

Resistance to flow

15

Less IMFs, ____ vapor pressure

high (evaporates quicker)

16

Boiling Point

temperature at which vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure

17

Normal boiling point

vapor pressure at 1 atm

18

Must boil pasta for ____ time at high altitudes

longer

19

Network covalent structure

Crystal structures (Tetrahedral lattice)

20

Ionic structure

Salts (cubic lattices)

21

Molecular structure

Hexagonal lattices made of full molecules (i.e. water >> Ice)

22

Metallic structure

No lattice, big clump

23

Alloys:

"Non-stoichiometric solid solutions"

24

Substitutional compound

Solute metal substitutes positions of host metal

25

Interstitial compound

Solute metal occupies interstitial sites in host lattice

26

1 cal =

4.184 J

27

Path function

dependent on path of system between start and finish

28

Specific heat capacity

heat required to raise temp of one gram of substance by one degree C

29

1st Law of Thermodynamics

The energy of the universe is constant

30

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of the uuniverse is increasing

31

3rd Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a crystalline substance approaches zero as the absolute temperature approaches zero

32

H,S: neg, pos

neg G: always spontaneous

33

H,S: pos, neg

pos G: never spontaneous

34

H,s: neg, neg

G depends: spontaneous at low temps

35

H,S: pos, pos

G depends: spontaneous at high temps

36

Integrated Rate Law: first order case

ln [At]/[Ao] = -kt

37

Integrated Rate Law: second order case

1/At - 1/Ao = kt

38

First order case graph

ln(conc)/time >>> negative straight line

39

Second order case graph

1/conc vs time >>> positive straight line

40

First order half life

t1/2 = ln2/k

41

Second order half life

t1/2 = 1/k[Ao]

42

Collision theory equation

ln(k1/k2) = (Ea/R)(1/T2 - 1/T1)