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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (44):
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Cliques

Small groups of friends who share intimate knowledge and confidences .

1

Crowds

Loosely organized groups who share interests and activities.

2

Controversial Status Youth

Aggressive kids who are either highly liked or intensely disliked by their peers and who are the ones most likely to become engaged in antisocial behavior.

3

Gang

Group of youths who collectively engage in delinquent behaviors.

4

Interstitial Area

An area of the city that forms when there is a crack in social fabric and in which deviant groups, cliques and gangs form.

5

Klikas

Subgroups of same-aged youths in Latino gangs that remain together and have separate names and a unique identity in the gang.

6

Graffiti

Inscriptions or drawings made on a wall or structure and used by delinquents for gang messages and turf definition.

7

Representing

Tossing or flashing gang signs in the presence of rivals, often escalating into verbal or physical confrontation.

8

Near-groups

clusters of youth who outwardly seem unified, but actually have limited cohesion, impermanance, minimal consensus of norms, shifting membership, disturbed leadership, and limited definitions of membership expectations.

9

Barrio

A spanish word meaning "district"

10

Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13)

A violent, international gang begun in southern Cali by immigrants from El Salvador. Engages in such crimes as burglaries, narcotic sales, weapon smuggling, murder, rape, and witness intimidation.

11

Skinhead

Member of a European American supremacist gang, identified by a shaved skull and Nazi or KKK markings.

12

Prestige Crimes

Stealing or assaulting someone to gain prestige in the neighborhood; often part of gang initiation rites.

13

Detached Street Workers

Social workers who went out into the community and established close relationships with juvenile gangs with the goal of modifying gang behavior to conform conventional behaviors and helping gang members get jobs and educational opportunities.

14

Academic Achievement

Being successful in a school environment

15

Drop Out

To leave school before completing the required program of education.

16

Dropout Factories

Schools in which the graduation rate is 40% or less.

17

Underachievers

Those who fail to meet expected levels of school achievement

18

Tracking

Dividing students into groups according to their ability and achievement levels.

19

Bullying

Repeated, negative acts committed by one or more children against another, which may be physical or verbal.

20

Gender Policing

Pressure to conform to gender expectations

21

Zero Tolerance Policy

Mandating specific consequences or punishments for delinquent behavior and not allowing anyone to avoid these consequences.

22

Passive Speech

A form of expression protected by the 1st Amendment, but not associated with actually speaking words; examples include wearing symbols or protest messages on buttons or signs.

23

Active Speech

Expressing opinions by speaking or writing; freedom of speech is protected by the 1st Amendment.

24

Substance Abuse

Using drugs or alcohol in such a way as to cause physical harm to oneself.

25

Marijuana

The dried leaves of cannabis plant

26

Hashish

A concentrated form of cannabis made from unadulterated resin from the female cannabis plant.

27

Cocaine

A powerful natural stimulant derived from the coca plant.

28

Crack

A highly addictive form of cocaine containing remnants of hydrochloride and sodium bicarbonate; it makes a crackling sound when smoked.

29

Heroin

A narcotic made from opium and then cut with sugar or some other neutral substance until it is only 1 to 4% pure.

30

Addict

A person with overpowering physical or psychological need to continue taking a particular substance or drug.

31

Alcohol

Fermented or distilled liquids containing ethanol, an intoxicating substance.

32

Anesthetic Drugs

Nervous system depressants.

33

Inhalants

Volatile liquids that give off a vapor, which is inhaled, producing short-term excitement and euphoria followed by a period of disoreintation.

34

Sedatives

Drugs of the barbiturate family that depress the central nervous system into sleeplike condition.

35

Tranquilizers

Drugs that reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.

36

Hallucinogens

Natural or synthetic substances that produce vivid distortions of the senses without greatly disturbing consciousness.

37

Stimulants

Synthetic substances that produce an intense physical reaction by stimulating the central nervous system.

38

Anabolic Steroids

Drugs used by athletes and bodybuilders to gain muscle bulk and strength.

39

Designer Drugs

Lab-made drugs designed to avoid existing drug laws.

40

Addiction Prone Personality

The view that the cause of substance abuse can be traced to a personality that has a compulsion for mood-altering drugs.

41

Multisystemic Therapy

Addresses a variety of family, peer, and psychological problems by focusing on problem-solving and communication skills training.

42

Harm Reduction

Efforts to minimize the harmful effects caused by drug use.

43

Legalization of Drugs

Decriminalizing drug use to reduce the association between drug use and crime.