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Juvenile Delinquency > Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Deck (60):
1

Watch System

Watchmen patrolled urban areas at night to provide protection against harm.

2

Community Policing

Emphasizes fear reduction, community organizations and order maintenance rather than crime fighting.

3

Juvenile Officers

Police officers who specialize in dealing with juvenile offenders, they may operate alone or a juvenile police unit.

4

Role Conflicts

Conflicts police officers face that revolve around the requirement to perform their primary duty of law enforcement and a desire to aid in rehabilitating youthful offenders.

5

Informant

A person who has access to criminal networks and shares information with authorities in exchange for money or special treatment.

6

Problem Oriented Policing

Law enforcement that focuses on addressing the problems underlying incidents of juvenile delinquency rather that the incidents alone.

7

Arrest

Taking a person into custody of law to restrain the accused until he/she can be held accountable for the offense in court.

8

Probable Cause

Reasonable grounds to believe the existence of facts that an offense was committed and that the accused committed that offense.

9

Search and Seizure

Protects citizens from any search and seizure unlawfully performed by police.

10

Custodial Interrogation

Questions by police to a suspect held in custody during prejudicial stage of juvenile process.

11

Miranda Warning

Supreme Court decisions require police to inform people of their rights when arrested.

12

Discretion

Use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in criminal justice system.

13

Procedural Justice

An evaluation of the fairness of the manner in which offenders or another group's problem or dispute was handled by police.

14

Pulling Levers Policing

Focused deterrence strategy that involves applying all available measures or "levers" to police as well as communication with offenders to reduce a targeted delinquent.

15

Guardian ad litem

Court appointed attorney who protects the interests of the child in cases involving the child's welfare.

16

Public Defender

Attorney who works in a public agency or under private contractual agreement as defense counsel to indigent defendants.

17

Juvenile Defense Attorney

Represents children in juvenile courts and plays an active role at all stages of the proceedings.

18

Juvenile Prosecutor

Government attorney responsible for representing the interest of the state and bringing the case against the accused juvenile.

19

Juvenile Court Justice

A judge elected or appointed to preside over juvenile cases whose decisions can only be reviewed by a judge of a higher court.

20

Shelter Care

A place for temporary care of children in physically unrestricting facilities.

21

Prevention Detention

Keepings the accused in custody prior to the trial because they are a danger.

22

Intake

Process during which a juvenile referral is received and a decision made to file a petition in juvenile court to release a juvenile, to place the juvenile under supervision or to refer the juvenile elsewhere.

23

Diversion

Officially halting or suspending a formal criminal or juvenile justice proceeding at and legally prescribed processing part after a recorded justice system entry. Referral of that person to a treatment or case program.

24

Widening The Net

Phenomenon that occurs when programs created to divert youths from the justice systems actually involve them more deeply in the official process.

25

Complaint

Report made by police or some other agency to the court that initiates the intake process.

26

Transfer Process

Transferring a juvenile from juvenile court to the adult criminal court.

27

Least Detrimental Alternative

Choosing a program that will best foster a child's growth and development.

28

Intermediate Sentencing

Doesn't specify the length of time the juvenile must be held rather for correctional authorities to decide when the juvenile is ready to return to society.

29

Determine Sentencing

The fixed term of detention that must be served.

30

Mandatory Sentencing

Sentences are defined by a statutory requirement that states the penalty to be set for all cases of a specific offense.

31

Final Order

Order that ends litigation between two parties by determining all their rights and disposing of all the issues.

32

Appellate Process

Allows the juvenile opportunity to have the case brought before a reviewing court after it has been heard in juvenile or family court.

33

Confidentiality

Restricting information in juvenile court proceedings in the interest of protecting the privacy of the juvenile.

34

Community Treatment

Using non-secure and non-institutionalized residences, counseling services, victim restitution programs, and other community services to treat juveniles in their communities.

35

Suppression Effect

Reduction of the number of arrests per year for youths who have been incarcerated or punished.

36

Probation

Supervised release from jail..

37

Pre-Disposition Report

Developed by juvenile probation officer includes clinical diagnosis of juvenile and the need for court assistance and other information in developing a treatment plan.

38

Balanced Probation

Program that integrates community protection and accountability of juvenile offender based on the principle that the juvenile offender must accept responsibility for their behavior.

39

Monetary Restitution

Offenders compensate crime victims for out of pocket losses caused by that crimee, including property damage, lost wages and medical expenses.

40

Victim Service Restitution

Offenders provide some service directly to that crime victim..

41

Community Service Restitution

Offenders assist some worthwhile community organization for a period of time.

42

Group Home

Non-secured structured residences that provide counseling, education, job training and family living.

43

Family Group Home

Combination of foster care and group home, run by a single family instead of a profession staff.

44

Rural Programs

Specific recreation and work opportunities provided for juvenile in a rural setting such as forestry camp, farm or ranch.

45

Reform Schools

Institution in which education and psychological services are used in an effort to improve the conduct of juveniles or are forcibly detained.

46

Cottage System

Housing in a compound of small cottages, each which can accommodate 20-40 children.

47

Least Restrictive Alternative

A program with the least restrictive or secure setting that will benefit the child.

48

Behavior Modification

Technique for shaping desired behaviors through a system of rewards and punishments.

49

Guided Group Interaction

Delinquents can acknowledge and solve personal problems with supports from other group members.

50

Positive Peer Culture

Counseling program in which peer leaders encourage other group members to modify their behaviors and peers help reinforce acceptable behaviors.

51

Milieu Therapy

All aspects of the environment are part of the treatment and meaningful change, increased growth and satisfactory adjustment are enxcouraged.

52

Meta Analysis

An analysis technique that synthesizes results of the program over time.

53

Aftercare

Transitional assistance to juvenile's equivalent to adult parole to help youths adjusts to community life.

54

Reentry

Process and experience of returning to society upon release from custody facility post adjudication.

55

Pledge System

Early English system where neighbors protected each other from thieves and warring groups.

56

Warantless Searches

-Stop and Frisk
-Search incidents to arrest
-Automobile Search
-Consent Search
-Plain view
-Electronic Surveillance
-Home Entry

57

Police Strategies to Prevent Delinquency

-Aggressive law enforcement
-Police in schools
-Community policing
-Problem oriented policing

58

Waiver Procedures

1. Concurrent jurisdiction-14 states and DC, the prosecutor has the discretion of filing charges for certain offenses in either juvenile or criminal court.
2. Statutory Exclusion Policies- in 29 states, certain offense are automatically excluded from juvenile court can be minor or serious. Accounts for the largest number of juveniles tried as adults.
3. Judicial Waiver: A hearing is held before a juvenile court judge who then decides whether jurisdiction should be waived and the case is transferred to criminal court. 44 states and DC offer provisions for juvenile waivers.

59

Concurrent Jurisdiction

14 states and DC, the prosecutor has the discretion to file charges on certain offenses in either juvenile or criminal court.

60

Statutory Exclusion Policies

in 29 states, certain offenses are automatically excluded from juvenile court and transferred to adult court. Number on reason why juveniles are tried as adults.