Flashcards in Final Deck (60):
Watchmen patrolled urban areas at night to provide protection against harm.
Emphasizes fear reduction, community organizations and order maintenance rather than crime fighting.
Police officers who specialize in dealing with juvenile offenders, they may operate alone or a juvenile police unit.
Conflicts police officers face that revolve around the requirement to perform their primary duty of law enforcement and a desire to aid in rehabilitating youthful offenders.
A person who has access to criminal networks and shares information with authorities in exchange for money or special treatment.
Problem Oriented Policing
Law enforcement that focuses on addressing the problems underlying incidents of juvenile delinquency rather that the incidents alone.
Taking a person into custody of law to restrain the accused until he/she can be held accountable for the offense in court.
Reasonable grounds to believe the existence of facts that an offense was committed and that the accused committed that offense.
Search and Seizure
Protects citizens from any search and seizure unlawfully performed by police.
Questions by police to a suspect held in custody during prejudicial stage of juvenile process.
Supreme Court decisions require police to inform people of their rights when arrested.
Use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in criminal justice system.
An evaluation of the fairness of the manner in which offenders or another group's problem or dispute was handled by police.
Pulling Levers Policing
Focused deterrence strategy that involves applying all available measures or "levers" to police as well as communication with offenders to reduce a targeted delinquent.
Guardian ad litem
Court appointed attorney who protects the interests of the child in cases involving the child's welfare.
Attorney who works in a public agency or under private contractual agreement as defense counsel to indigent defendants.
Juvenile Defense Attorney
Represents children in juvenile courts and plays an active role at all stages of the proceedings.
Government attorney responsible for representing the interest of the state and bringing the case against the accused juvenile.
Juvenile Court Justice
A judge elected or appointed to preside over juvenile cases whose decisions can only be reviewed by a judge of a higher court.
A place for temporary care of children in physically unrestricting facilities.
Keepings the accused in custody prior to the trial because they are a danger.
Process during which a juvenile referral is received and a decision made to file a petition in juvenile court to release a juvenile, to place the juvenile under supervision or to refer the juvenile elsewhere.
Officially halting or suspending a formal criminal or juvenile justice proceeding at and legally prescribed processing part after a recorded justice system entry. Referral of that person to a treatment or case program.
Widening The Net
Phenomenon that occurs when programs created to divert youths from the justice systems actually involve them more deeply in the official process.
Report made by police or some other agency to the court that initiates the intake process.
Transferring a juvenile from juvenile court to the adult criminal court.
Least Detrimental Alternative
Choosing a program that will best foster a child's growth and development.
Doesn't specify the length of time the juvenile must be held rather for correctional authorities to decide when the juvenile is ready to return to society.
The fixed term of detention that must be served.
Sentences are defined by a statutory requirement that states the penalty to be set for all cases of a specific offense.
Order that ends litigation between two parties by determining all their rights and disposing of all the issues.
Allows the juvenile opportunity to have the case brought before a reviewing court after it has been heard in juvenile or family court.
Restricting information in juvenile court proceedings in the interest of protecting the privacy of the juvenile.
Using non-secure and non-institutionalized residences, counseling services, victim restitution programs, and other community services to treat juveniles in their communities.
Reduction of the number of arrests per year for youths who have been incarcerated or punished.
Supervised release from jail..
Developed by juvenile probation officer includes clinical diagnosis of juvenile and the need for court assistance and other information in developing a treatment plan.
Program that integrates community protection and accountability of juvenile offender based on the principle that the juvenile offender must accept responsibility for their behavior.
Offenders compensate crime victims for out of pocket losses caused by that crimee, including property damage, lost wages and medical expenses.
Victim Service Restitution
Offenders provide some service directly to that crime victim..
Community Service Restitution
Offenders assist some worthwhile community organization for a period of time.
Non-secured structured residences that provide counseling, education, job training and family living.
Family Group Home
Combination of foster care and group home, run by a single family instead of a profession staff.
Specific recreation and work opportunities provided for juvenile in a rural setting such as forestry camp, farm or ranch.
Institution in which education and psychological services are used in an effort to improve the conduct of juveniles or are forcibly detained.
Housing in a compound of small cottages, each which can accommodate 20-40 children.
Least Restrictive Alternative
A program with the least restrictive or secure setting that will benefit the child.
Technique for shaping desired behaviors through a system of rewards and punishments.
Guided Group Interaction
Delinquents can acknowledge and solve personal problems with supports from other group members.
Positive Peer Culture
Counseling program in which peer leaders encourage other group members to modify their behaviors and peers help reinforce acceptable behaviors.
All aspects of the environment are part of the treatment and meaningful change, increased growth and satisfactory adjustment are enxcouraged.
An analysis technique that synthesizes results of the program over time.
Transitional assistance to juvenile's equivalent to adult parole to help youths adjusts to community life.
Process and experience of returning to society upon release from custody facility post adjudication.
Early English system where neighbors protected each other from thieves and warring groups.
-Stop and Frisk
-Search incidents to arrest
Police Strategies to Prevent Delinquency
-Aggressive law enforcement
-Police in schools
-Problem oriented policing
1. Concurrent jurisdiction-14 states and DC, the prosecutor has the discretion of filing charges for certain offenses in either juvenile or criminal court.
2. Statutory Exclusion Policies- in 29 states, certain offense are automatically excluded from juvenile court can be minor or serious. Accounts for the largest number of juveniles tried as adults.
3. Judicial Waiver: A hearing is held before a juvenile court judge who then decides whether jurisdiction should be waived and the case is transferred to criminal court. 44 states and DC offer provisions for juvenile waivers.
14 states and DC, the prosecutor has the discretion to file charges on certain offenses in either juvenile or criminal court.