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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (36)
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1

Definition of minerals

inorganic substances that are required by the body; 2 categories: micro and macro; 1 of 6 nutrient classes

2

List 3 general functions of minerals and one example of each

bone structure - P
tissue/cellular structure - K
blood/hemoglobin - Fe

3

Minerals can be classified as either ___ or ____

macro
micro

4

Examples of each class of minerals

macro: ca, p, mg
micro: zn, cu, co

5

What is eutrophication

the enrichment of an ecosystem with chemical nutrients; typically compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorous or both; can be a natural process

6

Pica (bone chewing) is associated with which mineral deficiency?
-P, Ca, Zn

phosphorous

7

One of these minerals occurs the most as a co-factor in the glycolytic pathway
-P, Ca, Mg

Magnesium

8

In what 2 vitamins is sulfur found?

thiamine; biotin

9

Predominant found in/component of:
1. bone
2. blood
3. extracellular fluid
4. amino acid
5. too high level could inactivate enzymes
6. found in epidermal tissues as skin, hair, wool, etc
7. regulation of metabolism/metabolic

1. Ca
2. Fe
3. Na
4. S
5. Cu
6. Zn
7. I

10

List 3 minerals (macro) whose digestion and absorption is influenced by physic acid (or phytate contents) of the diet

Ca, P, Mg

11

One of these minerals plays an active role in sexual maturation
-Zn, Mg, Mn

manganese

12

Parathyroid hormone is involved in ___ metabolism
-ca, zn, mg

Calcium

13

Thyroxine (a hormone) is produced from this amino aid
-threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine

tyrosine

14

Hairless and/or stillborn pigs ____
-manganese, iodine, cobalt

iodine

15

Irregular estrus cycles; fetal resorption or birth of small, weak pigs; poor udder development and little if any milk production
-copper, zinc, manganese

manganese

16

Increased mortality of newborn lambs and calves; white muscle disease lambs and calves
-selenium, copper, iron

selenim

17

Deficiency of this mineral does not necessarily lead to weight lost but high fat deposition
-cobalt, manganese, selenium

manganese

18

It is extremely important to supplement poultry and swine diets with ca. Give 2 reasons why

-fast growing
-usually fed diets with low Ca levels

19

Based on our discussion in class, name 2 minerals that may cause anemia in animals

iron copper

20

_____ is the process through which some minerals bind to some agents to varying degrees which generally leads to sequestering or isolating the mineral from interactions with other compounds and in some cases make it difficult for some minerals to be absorbed

Chelate

21

How well dietary calcium is going to be absorbed is dependent on a particular mineral. what is this mineral and what range of ratios do you think is optimal for good Ca utilization in swine?

P, 2:1 and 1:1

22

Briefly describe how parathyroid hormone (PTH) influences Ca metabolism
-Intestine:
-Kidney:
-Bone:

-increase Ca absorption
-increase Ca reabsorption
-increase Ca resorption

23

The absorption of minerals is dependent on many factors. Will each of the following increase or decrease or have no effect on the absorption of calcium
-Acid pH (5-8) instead of neutral (6.8-7)
-Low levels of physic acid because o changing the source of ingredients used
-rising the P content of the diet
-premenopausal age for a woman compared to postmenopausal
-aging

-increase
-increase
-decrease
-increase
-decrease

24

What happens when chickens are fed a diet that is high in Na (or NacL)
-feed intake increase or decrease
-water consumption: increase or decrease

-decrease; increase

25

Potential for sodium toxicity is greatly reduce when animals have an adequate supply of a particular nutrient. What is this nutrient?

water

26

T/F: C and P comprise over 70% of the body mineral

true

27

T/F: 99% of calcium is found in bones and teeth

true

28

T/F: Qualitatively, Ca > P >Mg in bone

True

29

T/F: Horses and sheep are more likely to be deficient in Ca and P

False

30

T/F: Goiter is an enlargement of the kidney

False