Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

Nutrition > Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (37)
Loading flashcards...
1

any constructive process by which simple substances are converted by living cells into more complex substances is called

anabolism

2

chemical agents that are synthesized by particular parts of the body and are carried by blood to another part of the body where they elicit a physiological response by action on specific tissues or organs are called

hormones

3

the physical and chemical reactions feedstuff undergoes from intake to absorption from the gut is termed

digestion

4

what converts pepsinogen into its active form pepsin

HCl

5

list all the nutrient classes

protein lipids minerals carbohydrate vitamins water

6

the movement of nutrients from the GI tract through the gut wall into the lymph system, blood stream, and cells is called

absorption

7

biocatalysts, secreted by living cells, which activate and/or accelerate chemical reactions are called

enzymes

8

what scientific discipline has contributed the most to our understanding of nutrition

chemistry

9

there is a factor necessary for life that many people mistakenly call a nutrient. this factor is a property that is present in several nutrients and is one of the main reasons for using higher grain levels in many diets. this important factor is called

energy

10

____ are involved in enzyme activation

cofactor

11

What is the difference between a concentrate and a roughage?

concentrate has 18% crude fiber

12

On a dry, fat-free basis, what is the ratio of protein to ash in the animal body?

80:20 = 4:1

13

Roughage diets must be supplemented with ____ while concentrate diets must be supplemented with ____

phosphorous; ca & p

14

How do the following change (on as-is basis and less the contents of the digestive tract) as an animal (ex: cow) grows from 100 to 1000 pounds (increase or decrease)?
-water content of the carcass ___ with an increase in weight
-fat content of the carcass ___ with an increase in body weight

-decrease; increase

15

Plants make carbohydrate, fat, an proteins from H2O, nitrates and mineral salts T/F:

False

16

All life processes originate from the plant kingdom T/F:

True

17

Plants and animals contain the same substances in the same proportion T/F:

False

18

Carbohydrate is the primary constituent of animal body and it is found only in traces in plants T/F:

False

19

Energy is stored as ____ in plants and largely as ___ in animals

carbs; fats

20

In animals, primary nutrient responsible for structural support is ____ while ___ perform similar functions in plants

protein; cellulose

21

As plants mature, nutrient content and other characteristics change. For the following, place a check mark in the column of the type of plant that is HIGHEST for the nutrient or characteristic in question: (mature plant/young plant)
DM yield per unit of land
digestibility %
crude fiber %

DM yield: mature
digestibility: young
crude fiber: mature

22

In the proximate analysis of a feedstuff, what is the residue called that remains after all the combustible material has been burned?

Ash

23

List 3 functions which the GI tract performs

absorbs; excretes; transports

24

Enzyme Substrate Organ
a. Amylase ________ _________
b. _______ protein _________
c. lipase ________ _________
d. trypsin ________ _________

a. amylase; starch; mouth
b. pepsin; protein; stomach
c. lipase; fats; pancreas
d. trypsin; protein; small intestine

25

List the 4 divisions of the non ruminant stomach and indicate whether or not each region is glandular

a. esophageal: nonglandular
b. cardiac: glandular
c. fundic: glandular
d. pyloric: nonglandular

26

Rank the following with regard to the complexity of the GI tract (3 = most complex 1 = least complex)
a. carnivore
b. omnivore
c. herbivore

carnivore = 1
herbivore = 3

27

poultry have no teeth to perform the mechanical aspects of feed breakdown; what part of GI does this?

gizzard

28

name 3 hormones that are involved in digestive process

gastrin; secretin; CCK

29

where is bile secreted and what is the role of bile in digestion

liver; emulsify fats

30

Absorption is a function of surface area because the absorption occurs at the interface of the interstitial tissue and the chime. What are the fingerlike projections called that serve to greatly increase the surface area and thus absorption?

villi or microvilli