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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (40):
1

symptoms of schizophrenia

- disturbances in thought, emotion, and behavior
-disorder thinking (ideas not logically related)
- faulty perception and attention
- lack of emotional expressiveness or inappropriate expressions
- disturbances in movement and behavior
- may withdraw from everyday reality often into a life of odd beliefs (delusions) and hallucinations

2

disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia

- disorganized speech
- disorganized behavior: they lose the ability to organize their behavior and conform it to community standards

3

catatonia in schizophrenia

- gesture repeatedly using peculiar and complex finger, hand, and arm movements
- some manifest an unusual increase in overall level of activity (manic-like)
- catatonic immobility: adopting unusual postures and maintaining them for long periods of times (includes waxy flexibility: another person moves the patients limbs and the they maintain that position for longer periods of time)

4

schizophreniform disorder

same symptoms as schizophrenia but last from 1 to 6 months

5

brief psychotic disorder

same symptoms as schizophrenia but lasts from 1 day to 1 month (AKA psychotic break)

6

schizoaffective disorder

mixture of schizophrenia and mood disorder symptoms (manic or depressive symptoms continue when schizophrenic symptoms are on hold)

7

delusional disorder

persistent delusions of persecution or by delusional jealousy, being followed, etc. (doesn't have hallucinations and delusions are less bizarre)

8

first-generation medications for schizophrenia

- phenothiazines, thioxanthenes
- reduce positive and disorganized symptoms but have little or no effect on negative symptoms
- unpleasant side effects

9

second-generation antipsychotic medications for schizophrenia

- fewer motor side effects than first generation
- can impair immune system functioning by lowering WBC count in some people
- must be monitored with routine blood tests
- can produce seizures and other side effects
- related to development to type 2 diabetes

10

personality disorders

- long-standing, pervasive, and inflexible patterns of behavior and inner experience that deviate from culture expectations
- problematic patterns manifest in at least two areas: cognition, emotions, relationships, and impulse control
- must cause distress or functional impairment

11

five-factor model of personality

- Openness to experience (adrenaline junkie to routine dependent)
- Conscientiousness (planning and organized to procrastination and chaos)
- Extraversion/ introversion
- Agreeableness/ antagonism
- Neuroticism (high striving, competitive to difficulty making a decision, not striving because of fear to make a mistake)

12

Cluster A personality disorders

- paranoid personality disorders
- schizoid personality disorder
- schizotypical personality disorder
- symptoms similar to bizarre thinking and experiences seen in schizophrenia

13

paranoid personality disorder

- suspicious of others
- often hostile to perceived insults

14

schizoid personality disorder

- no desire for social relationships
- appear dull and have no warm feelings for other people
- rarely experience strong emotions, not interested in sex
- indifferent to praise, criticism, and sentiments

15

schizotypical personality disorder

- socially isolated
- eccentric symptoms that are milder versions of schizophrenia symptoms
- odd beliefs, magical thinking
- illusions
- paranoid ideation

16

Cluster B personality disorders

- borderline personality disorder
- histrionic personality disorder
- narcissistic personality disorder
- antisocial personality disorder
- symptoms range from highly inconsistent behavior to inflated self esteem, exaggerated emotional displays, and rule-breaking behavior

17

borderline personality disorder

- impulsivity and instability in relationships and mood
- emotions are intense, erratic, and can shift abruptly
- overly sensitive to small signs of emotions in others
- can't bear to be alone
- experience transient psychotic and dissociative symptoms when stressed

18

histrionic personality disorder

- overly dramatic and attention-seeking behavior
- often use physical appearance to draw attention
- self-centered, uncomfortable when not the center of attention

19

narcissistic personality disorder

- grand view of their abilities and preoccupied with fantasies of success
- more than a little self-centered, requiring constant attention and admiration
- lack of empathy, arrogance with feelings of entitlement (expect others to do special favors for them)
- extremely sensitive to criticism becoming enraged when others don't admire them
- seek out high-status partners but when they inevitably fall short of their unrealistic expectations thy become angry and rejecting

20

antisocial personality disorder

- pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others since age of 15
- presence of conduct disorder before age of 15

21

Cluster C personality disorders

- avoidant personality disorder
- dependent personality disorder
- obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

22

avoidant personality disorder

- so fearful of criticism rejection, and disapproval they will avoid jobs or relationships
- restrained in social situations for extreme fear of saying something foolish, being embarrassed..
- believe they are incompetent and inferior to others

23

dependent personality disorder

- overreliance on others and a lack of self-confidence
- when a relationship ends, they urgently seek another one to replace it

24

gender vs. sex

- gender: psychological and social traits associated with being male or female
- sex: whether you are biologically female or male

25

four stages of sexual response

- desire
- excitement
- orgasm
- resolution

26

externalizing disorder in children

- outward-directed behaviors (aggressiveness, noncompliance, overactivity etc)
- attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder

27

internalizing disorder in childre

childhood anxiety and mood disorders

28

ADHD subtypes

- predominantly inattentive type
- predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type
- combined type

29

ADHD treatments

- stimulant and other medications
- psychological treatment (behavioral therapy)

30

3 components needed for a mental retardation diagnosis

- IQ below 70-75
- deficits in adaptive behavior (toileting, concepts of time and money, traveling)
- onset prior to age 18

31

levels of MR

- mild: 50-55 to 70 IQ
- moderate: 35-40 to 50-55
- severe: 20-25 to 35-40
- profound: below 20-25

32

Fragile X syndrome

- mutation in the fMR1 gene on the x chromosome
- have large, underdeveloped ears and long, thin face

33

PKU

- phenylketonuria
- deficiency of live enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (needed to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine, an amino acid essential for production of certain hormone such as epinephrine

34

environment factor of MR

- mercury
- lead

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young-old

65-74

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old-old

75-84

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oldest-old

over 85

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cohort effects

growing up during a period with its unique challenges (great depression)

39

frontotemporal dementia

- loss of neurons in frontal and temporal brain regions
- impaired planning, problem solving, and goal-directed behavior

40

cerebrovascular dementia

- cognitive symptoms of dementia are consequences of cerebrovascular disease
- likely cause is strokes