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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (40):

symptoms of schizophrenia

- disturbances in thought, emotion, and behavior
-disorder thinking (ideas not logically related)
- faulty perception and attention
- lack of emotional expressiveness or inappropriate expressions
- disturbances in movement and behavior
- may withdraw from everyday reality often into a life of odd beliefs (delusions) and hallucinations


disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia

- disorganized speech
- disorganized behavior: they lose the ability to organize their behavior and conform it to community standards


catatonia in schizophrenia

- gesture repeatedly using peculiar and complex finger, hand, and arm movements
- some manifest an unusual increase in overall level of activity (manic-like)
- catatonic immobility: adopting unusual postures and maintaining them for long periods of times (includes waxy flexibility: another person moves the patients limbs and the they maintain that position for longer periods of time)


schizophreniform disorder

same symptoms as schizophrenia but last from 1 to 6 months


brief psychotic disorder

same symptoms as schizophrenia but lasts from 1 day to 1 month (AKA psychotic break)


schizoaffective disorder

mixture of schizophrenia and mood disorder symptoms (manic or depressive symptoms continue when schizophrenic symptoms are on hold)


delusional disorder

persistent delusions of persecution or by delusional jealousy, being followed, etc. (doesn't have hallucinations and delusions are less bizarre)


first-generation medications for schizophrenia

- phenothiazines, thioxanthenes
- reduce positive and disorganized symptoms but have little or no effect on negative symptoms
- unpleasant side effects


second-generation antipsychotic medications for schizophrenia

- fewer motor side effects than first generation
- can impair immune system functioning by lowering WBC count in some people
- must be monitored with routine blood tests
- can produce seizures and other side effects
- related to development to type 2 diabetes


personality disorders

- long-standing, pervasive, and inflexible patterns of behavior and inner experience that deviate from culture expectations
- problematic patterns manifest in at least two areas: cognition, emotions, relationships, and impulse control
- must cause distress or functional impairment


five-factor model of personality

- Openness to experience (adrenaline junkie to routine dependent)
- Conscientiousness (planning and organized to procrastination and chaos)
- Extraversion/ introversion
- Agreeableness/ antagonism
- Neuroticism (high striving, competitive to difficulty making a decision, not striving because of fear to make a mistake)


Cluster A personality disorders

- paranoid personality disorders
- schizoid personality disorder
- schizotypical personality disorder
- symptoms similar to bizarre thinking and experiences seen in schizophrenia


paranoid personality disorder

- suspicious of others
- often hostile to perceived insults


schizoid personality disorder

- no desire for social relationships
- appear dull and have no warm feelings for other people
- rarely experience strong emotions, not interested in sex
- indifferent to praise, criticism, and sentiments


schizotypical personality disorder

- socially isolated
- eccentric symptoms that are milder versions of schizophrenia symptoms
- odd beliefs, magical thinking
- illusions
- paranoid ideation


Cluster B personality disorders

- borderline personality disorder
- histrionic personality disorder
- narcissistic personality disorder
- antisocial personality disorder
- symptoms range from highly inconsistent behavior to inflated self esteem, exaggerated emotional displays, and rule-breaking behavior


borderline personality disorder

- impulsivity and instability in relationships and mood
- emotions are intense, erratic, and can shift abruptly
- overly sensitive to small signs of emotions in others
- can't bear to be alone
- experience transient psychotic and dissociative symptoms when stressed


histrionic personality disorder

- overly dramatic and attention-seeking behavior
- often use physical appearance to draw attention
- self-centered, uncomfortable when not the center of attention


narcissistic personality disorder

- grand view of their abilities and preoccupied with fantasies of success
- more than a little self-centered, requiring constant attention and admiration
- lack of empathy, arrogance with feelings of entitlement (expect others to do special favors for them)
- extremely sensitive to criticism becoming enraged when others don't admire them
- seek out high-status partners but when they inevitably fall short of their unrealistic expectations thy become angry and rejecting


antisocial personality disorder

- pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others since age of 15
- presence of conduct disorder before age of 15


Cluster C personality disorders

- avoidant personality disorder
- dependent personality disorder
- obsessive-compulsive personality disorder


avoidant personality disorder

- so fearful of criticism rejection, and disapproval they will avoid jobs or relationships
- restrained in social situations for extreme fear of saying something foolish, being embarrassed..
- believe they are incompetent and inferior to others


dependent personality disorder

- overreliance on others and a lack of self-confidence
- when a relationship ends, they urgently seek another one to replace it


gender vs. sex

- gender: psychological and social traits associated with being male or female
- sex: whether you are biologically female or male


four stages of sexual response

- desire
- excitement
- orgasm
- resolution


externalizing disorder in children

- outward-directed behaviors (aggressiveness, noncompliance, overactivity etc)
- attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder


internalizing disorder in childre

childhood anxiety and mood disorders


ADHD subtypes

- predominantly inattentive type
- predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type
- combined type


ADHD treatments

- stimulant and other medications
- psychological treatment (behavioral therapy)


3 components needed for a mental retardation diagnosis

- IQ below 70-75
- deficits in adaptive behavior (toileting, concepts of time and money, traveling)
- onset prior to age 18


levels of MR

- mild: 50-55 to 70 IQ
- moderate: 35-40 to 50-55
- severe: 20-25 to 35-40
- profound: below 20-25


Fragile X syndrome

- mutation in the fMR1 gene on the x chromosome
- have large, underdeveloped ears and long, thin face



- phenylketonuria
- deficiency of live enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (needed to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine, an amino acid essential for production of certain hormone such as epinephrine


environment factor of MR

- mercury
- lead









over 85


cohort effects

growing up during a period with its unique challenges (great depression)


frontotemporal dementia

- loss of neurons in frontal and temporal brain regions
- impaired planning, problem solving, and goal-directed behavior


cerebrovascular dementia

- cognitive symptoms of dementia are consequences of cerebrovascular disease
- likely cause is strokes