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KNSS 205: History of Sport > Exam 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (84):

Name 6 factors affecting the development of sport in Canada.

- first nations people
- European (British & French) colonists
- Interactions between the aboriginals and Europeans
- climate
- expansive land and multitude of geographical features
- pacific railway


Define diffusion.

- diffusion takes place when the aspects of one culture spread to another
- refers to spread of games into the settler culture and to some degree in the opposite direction too via word of mouth and observation and demonstration


What are the 3 types of diffusion?

- direct diffusion
- indirect diffusion
- forced diffusion


Define acculturation.

- The process of transformation, when a culture adopts various aspects of another culture on a large scale and becomes transformed
- facilitated by cultural/psychological change that results following meeting between cultures
- have to abandon their beliefs, practices, language, clothing, etc. and embrace something new
- "original" culture starts to get lost and the "new" culture takes over


Describe first nations and their early sporting endeavours.

- Nomadic culture, deep connection to land
- Required extreme physical fitness


Name 4 games of the Dene and Inuit.

• Wrestling & foot races
• Emphasized and developed strength, endurance & resistance to pain
• Means to share culture with other (1st Nations) groups
• Wrestling as a handshake


7 popular games of the first nations:

- Blanket toss
- Caribou chase game
- Moose-skin ball game
- Finger pull
- Ear pull
- Shinny
- Baggataway (tewaarathon or lacrosse)


5 factors that influenced sport and games in first nations:

• Religion
• Health
• Economics
• Cultural exchanges
• Social relations between tribes


Name and describe Canadian settlers.

• French Settlers
• British Officers
• Scottish immigrants
• European Settlers
• Not much time for sport
• Social recreation “bees”


Diffusion and acculturation goes _____ _____.

both ways


Settlers learned many sport skills from:

the indigenous people


What kinds of skills did the settlers learn from the indigenous people?

- habits of the animals (hunting)
- value of the snowshoe
- secrets of canoeing (both building and using)


What games did the settlers learn from the indigenous people?

- dancing
- archery
- dice
- racquet games


Describe the European settlers and the fur trade.

- Coureurs de bois (runners of the wood)
- independent entrepreneurs
- rebellious adventurers
- extremely physically fit, expert canoeists
- displaced by voyageurs


Who was in charge of physical education before 1800?



What was the first system of physical education?

- 1606 initiative given by Samuel de Champlain
- "Order of Good Times" "L'Ordre de bon Temps"
- attempt to battle scurvy


Aboriginals had races and admired:

any white man (French) who could defeat a Native


Montreal is considered the _____ of organized sport



Describe Montreal prior to middle of 19th century.

- very little in the way of "organized sport"
- mostly spontaneous and loosely organized
- very few structures, clubs, teams, commercial support, leagues, etc.


Montreal was a ____________ in the early to mid 19th century.

"mecca for Canadian sport"


What happened in the mid 19th century in Montreal?

- geographical, economic, cultural, and commercial nexus
- 1851 population (58,000) grew to 250,000 by 1900


_____ ______ were instrumental in the organization of sport in early-mid 19th century Montreal.

garrison officers


Why were garrison officers instrumental in the organization of sport in early-mid 19th century Montreal?

possessed the leisure time


When was there a dramatic decline in Montreal sporting events?

when troops withdrawn from Canada for Crimean war in 1985


Describe the Montreal Curling Club.

- founded by 20 elite Montreal citizens of Scottish origins
- established 1807
- meeting place: Gillis's Tavern
- Mandate (role)
- exclusivity
- oldest sport club in continuous existence in Canada


Describe the Montreal Olympic Club.

- 1842 earliest track and field organization in Canada
- held a contest/festival considered "Olympics" (1844)


What are the 9 sports of the Montreal Olympic Club?

- rifle shooting
- standing high vault
- running high leap
- standing leap
- hammer throw
- 365 metre foot race
- throwing a cricket ball for distance
- 1.5 km walking race
- novelty game of "La Crosse"


What was the Victoria Skating Rink?

- hosted stanley cup multiple times
- 1875: first public exhibition of a formal game of ice hockey


What was the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association?

1881, first multi-sport club


In the MAAA, members participated in:

- gymnastics
- boxing
- fencing
- billiards
- shooting
- bowling
- snow shoeing
- lacrosse
- cycling


What does the symbol of MAAA represent?

MAAA as the hub of the organization with various recreation and sporting branches of the association representing the spokes


What is the moto of MAAA?

- Jungor ut Implear
- "joined to be complete"
- strength in union


MAAA represented the first great _____ ______ in Canada.

- sport administrators
- pyramid structure for sport


How did team sport grow at the turn of the century in Montreal?

lacrosse, rugby football, ice hockey, soccer, and baseball fuelled by the inclusion of the working class


What was the difference between French-Canadiens and English speaking Montrealers in terms of sport participation?

- French-Canadiens played lacrosse and did snowshoeing
- English speaking Montrealers were the participants in organized sport


Describe the recreations of the working class in Montreal.

- cycling races
- prizefighting
- cockfighting
- skating
- billiards


What happened in the 1870s for the MAAA?

- corruption of amateur sport
- emphasis on "outcome" of sports events
- importing of paid players (beginning of professionalism in sport)


Describe the views of sport by moral entrepreneurs.

- believe in true recreational sport
- strict on "amateurism"
- participation in sport makes you a better person with better health and character


Describe the views of sport by economic entrepreneurs.

- believe in the development of professional elite leagues
- sport promotion and marketing
- sport = entertainment and money


What was the causes of contrasting ideologies/views in Montreal?

- different ethnic (English vs Irish), religious (Protestant vs Catholic), socio-economic perspectives/pursuit of sport
- contributed to the diffusion of sport organization
- single association in one large city no longer able to control sport across the country


Define an amateur.

- one who has never competed in any open competition or for public money, or for admission money
- or with professionals for a prize, public money or admission money
- nor has ever, at any period of his life taught or assisted in he pursuit of Athletic exercises as a means of livelihood
- or is a labourer or an Indian


What is the athletic war?

- amateur ideal reinforced by competing in Olympic Games
- ended because of London Olympics (1908)
- finally put to bed after the Tom Longboat Controversy


Describe the Tom Longboat Controversy.

• Leslie Boyd (AAFC/MAAA)
• Sullivan (American AU)
• Longboat (CAAU runner)
• Boyd and Sullivan colluded to get Longboat
declared a Pro
• Canadians incensed – nationally disloyal and


Describe the death of amateurism.

- cross atlantic pressures
- traditional pro-sports surged ahead (hockey, lacrosse, baseball)
- in 1970s: government took control of sport, CAAA disbanded


Who is Dr. William Penny Brookes? Where did he live? What did he do?

- dedicated physician
- Shorpshire, England
- 1850: founded the Wenlock Olympian Society to promote the "moral, physical, and intellectual" development
- continued to request the Greek establishment to hold a revived Olympic event


What happened in 1850 in association with the Olympics?

first Shropshire Olympian Games: Wenlock Olympian Games


What happened in 1881 in association with the Olympics?

promotion idea through the Greek press of the benefits of an international Olympic event


When was the first modern Olympic Games? Where was it held?

- April 1896
- Athens


Who is considered the father of the modern Olympic games?

Pierre de Coubertin


Who is considered the founder of the modern Olympics?

Dr. William Penny Brookes


Where were the Wenlock Olympian Games held?

Much Wenlock, Shropshire, England


What is the Pierre de Coubertin medal?

- given by IOC to those athletes who demonstrate the spirit of sportsmanship in Olympic events
- inaugurated 1964


How many countries participated in the 1896 Athens Olympics? How many athletes?

- 13 countries
- 311 athletes


What 9 sports were a part of the Athens 1896 Olympics?

- track and field
- wrestling
- cycling
- gymnastics
- tennis
- swimming
- weightlifting
- fencing
- rifle shooting


Describe the Paris 1900 Olympics.

- from May 20 to September 20 (5 months)
- side show to the World's fair
- women in golf and tennis
- Eiffel Tower was built = little planning, games were a mess


What sports were a part of the Paris 1900 Olympics?

- ballooning
- fire-fighting
- tug-o-war
- motor racing
- golf
- fishing
- marathon


What is the marathon scandal?

- 3 french runners took gold, silver, and bronze
- a last minute change of course took the runners through a mud puddle
- 3 french runners were not muddy, everyone else was


Describe the St Louis 1904 Olympics.

- first Canadian team
- first Canadian gold medal
- women in archery only
- only 11 countries participated
- geographically St. Louis was hard to get to
- games stopped after 2 days and had Anthropology Days


What is the only summer games not to be staged in the usual 4 year cycle?

1906 Athens, Greece


What is the Big O(we)?

- 3 million dollar study to see why there was such huge cost overruns (1B total cost)
- finally paid off in 2006 (30 years)


The Olympics were formed for a _____ purpose.



______ have had more of an effect on the games than the games have had on ______.



Describe the politics in the 1936 Berlin Olympics.

games used by Nazis to promote their ideas of racial superiority


Describe the politics in the 1968 Mexico City Olympics.

Games used by American Black athletes to protest American policies concerning race


Describe the politics in the 1972 Munich Olympics.

games boycotted by most Arab nations. 11 Israeli athletes killed in terrorist incident at the Olympic village


Describe the politics in the 1976 Montreal Olympics.

games boycotted by most Arab nations, South Africa banned


Describe the politics in the 1980 Moscow Olympics.

games boycotted by USA and its allies in protest over Soviet attack on Afghanistan


Describe the politics in the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics.

games boycotted by Soviet Union and its allies in protest of American involvement in Nicaragua


Describe the politics in the 1988 (Seoul) and 1992 (Barcelona) Olympics.

South Africa still banned


Describe the politics in the 1996 Atlanta Olympics.

no one boycotted, no one banned


What are the 3 sociological perspectives?

- symbolic interactionism
- functionalism
- conflict theory


What is the level of analysis for symbolic interactions?



What is the level of analysis for functionalism?



What is the level of analysis for conflict theory?



What is the focus of symbolic interactionism?

- use of symbols
- face-to-face interactions


What is the focus of functionalism?

- relationship between the parts of society
- how aspects of society are functional (adaptive)


What is the focus of conflict theory?

- competition for scarce resources
- how the elite control the poor and weak


According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, people attach meanings to _____, then they act...

- symbols
- act according to their subjective interpretation of these symbols


According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, what serves as the predominant symbol?

verbal conversations


Symbolic interactionism neglects:

- the macro level of social interpretation (the big picture)
- miss the larger issues of society by focussing too closely


According to the functionalist perspective, each aspect of society is ______ and ...

- interdependent
- contributes to society's functioning as a whole


The conflict perspective focuses on the ____, _____, and ______ of society.

- negative
- conflicted
- ever changing nature


Who is George Orton?

- first Canadian Olympic champion
- U of Penn.
- Gold 2500m steeplechase
- Bronze 400m hurdles


Who is George S. Lyon?

- entered the 1904 olympics at 46
- 1 of 3 Canadians
- played 12 rounds in 6 days
- in a cold rain storm, Lyons was successful and won the gold medal by 2 holes