Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (84):
Name 6 factors affecting the development of sport in Canada.
- first nations people
- European (British & French) colonists
- Interactions between the aboriginals and Europeans
- expansive land and multitude of geographical features
- pacific railway
- diffusion takes place when the aspects of one culture spread to another
- refers to spread of games into the settler culture and to some degree in the opposite direction too via word of mouth and observation and demonstration
What are the 3 types of diffusion?
- direct diffusion
- indirect diffusion
- forced diffusion
- The process of transformation, when a culture adopts various aspects of another culture on a large scale and becomes transformed
- facilitated by cultural/psychological change that results following meeting between cultures
- have to abandon their beliefs, practices, language, clothing, etc. and embrace something new
- "original" culture starts to get lost and the "new" culture takes over
Describe first nations and their early sporting endeavours.
- Nomadic culture, deep connection to land
- Required extreme physical fitness
Name 4 games of the Dene and Inuit.
• Wrestling & foot races
• Emphasized and developed strength, endurance & resistance to pain
• Means to share culture with other (1st Nations) groups
• Wrestling as a handshake
7 popular games of the first nations:
- Blanket toss
- Caribou chase game
- Moose-skin ball game
- Finger pull
- Ear pull
- Baggataway (tewaarathon or lacrosse)
5 factors that influenced sport and games in first nations:
• Cultural exchanges
• Social relations between tribes
Name and describe Canadian settlers.
• French Settlers
• British Officers
• Scottish immigrants
• European Settlers
• Not much time for sport
• Social recreation “bees”
Diffusion and acculturation goes _____ _____.
Settlers learned many sport skills from:
the indigenous people
What kinds of skills did the settlers learn from the indigenous people?
- habits of the animals (hunting)
- value of the snowshoe
- secrets of canoeing (both building and using)
What games did the settlers learn from the indigenous people?
- racquet games
Describe the European settlers and the fur trade.
- Coureurs de bois (runners of the wood)
- independent entrepreneurs
- rebellious adventurers
- extremely physically fit, expert canoeists
- displaced by voyageurs
Who was in charge of physical education before 1800?
What was the first system of physical education?
- 1606 initiative given by Samuel de Champlain
- "Order of Good Times" "L'Ordre de bon Temps"
- attempt to battle scurvy
Aboriginals had races and admired:
any white man (French) who could defeat a Native
Montreal is considered the _____ of organized sport
Describe Montreal prior to middle of 19th century.
- very little in the way of "organized sport"
- mostly spontaneous and loosely organized
- very few structures, clubs, teams, commercial support, leagues, etc.
Montreal was a ____________ in the early to mid 19th century.
"mecca for Canadian sport"
What happened in the mid 19th century in Montreal?
- geographical, economic, cultural, and commercial nexus
- 1851 population (58,000) grew to 250,000 by 1900
_____ ______ were instrumental in the organization of sport in early-mid 19th century Montreal.
Why were garrison officers instrumental in the organization of sport in early-mid 19th century Montreal?
possessed the leisure time
When was there a dramatic decline in Montreal sporting events?
when troops withdrawn from Canada for Crimean war in 1985
Describe the Montreal Curling Club.
- founded by 20 elite Montreal citizens of Scottish origins
- established 1807
- meeting place: Gillis's Tavern
- Mandate (role)
- oldest sport club in continuous existence in Canada
Describe the Montreal Olympic Club.
- 1842 earliest track and field organization in Canada
- held a contest/festival considered "Olympics" (1844)
What are the 9 sports of the Montreal Olympic Club?
- rifle shooting
- standing high vault
- running high leap
- standing leap
- hammer throw
- 365 metre foot race
- throwing a cricket ball for distance
- 1.5 km walking race
- novelty game of "La Crosse"
What was the Victoria Skating Rink?
- hosted stanley cup multiple times
- 1875: first public exhibition of a formal game of ice hockey
What was the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association?
1881, first multi-sport club
In the MAAA, members participated in:
- snow shoeing
What does the symbol of MAAA represent?
MAAA as the hub of the organization with various recreation and sporting branches of the association representing the spokes
What is the moto of MAAA?
- Jungor ut Implear
- "joined to be complete"
- strength in union
MAAA represented the first great _____ ______ in Canada.
- sport administrators
- pyramid structure for sport
How did team sport grow at the turn of the century in Montreal?
lacrosse, rugby football, ice hockey, soccer, and baseball fuelled by the inclusion of the working class
What was the difference between French-Canadiens and English speaking Montrealers in terms of sport participation?
- French-Canadiens played lacrosse and did snowshoeing
- English speaking Montrealers were the participants in organized sport
Describe the recreations of the working class in Montreal.
- cycling races
What happened in the 1870s for the MAAA?
- corruption of amateur sport
- emphasis on "outcome" of sports events
- importing of paid players (beginning of professionalism in sport)
Describe the views of sport by moral entrepreneurs.
- believe in true recreational sport
- strict on "amateurism"
- participation in sport makes you a better person with better health and character
Describe the views of sport by economic entrepreneurs.
- believe in the development of professional elite leagues
- sport promotion and marketing
- sport = entertainment and money
What was the causes of contrasting ideologies/views in Montreal?
- different ethnic (English vs Irish), religious (Protestant vs Catholic), socio-economic perspectives/pursuit of sport
- contributed to the diffusion of sport organization
- single association in one large city no longer able to control sport across the country
Define an amateur.
- one who has never competed in any open competition or for public money, or for admission money
- or with professionals for a prize, public money or admission money
- nor has ever, at any period of his life taught or assisted in he pursuit of Athletic exercises as a means of livelihood
- or is a labourer or an Indian
What is the athletic war?
- amateur ideal reinforced by competing in Olympic Games
- CAAU vs AAAC (MAAA)
- ended because of London Olympics (1908)
- finally put to bed after the Tom Longboat Controversy
Describe the Tom Longboat Controversy.
• Leslie Boyd (AAFC/MAAA)
• Sullivan (American AU)
• Longboat (CAAU runner)
• Boyd and Sullivan colluded to get Longboat
declared a Pro
• Canadians incensed – nationally disloyal and
Describe the death of amateurism.
- cross atlantic pressures
- traditional pro-sports surged ahead (hockey, lacrosse, baseball)
- in 1970s: government took control of sport, CAAA disbanded
Who is Dr. William Penny Brookes? Where did he live? What did he do?
- dedicated physician
- Shorpshire, England
- 1850: founded the Wenlock Olympian Society to promote the "moral, physical, and intellectual" development
- continued to request the Greek establishment to hold a revived Olympic event
What happened in 1850 in association with the Olympics?
first Shropshire Olympian Games: Wenlock Olympian Games
What happened in 1881 in association with the Olympics?
promotion idea through the Greek press of the benefits of an international Olympic event
When was the first modern Olympic Games? Where was it held?
- April 1896
Who is considered the father of the modern Olympic games?
Pierre de Coubertin
Who is considered the founder of the modern Olympics?
Dr. William Penny Brookes
Where were the Wenlock Olympian Games held?
Much Wenlock, Shropshire, England
What is the Pierre de Coubertin medal?
- given by IOC to those athletes who demonstrate the spirit of sportsmanship in Olympic events
- inaugurated 1964
How many countries participated in the 1896 Athens Olympics? How many athletes?
- 13 countries
- 311 athletes
What 9 sports were a part of the Athens 1896 Olympics?
- track and field
- rifle shooting
Describe the Paris 1900 Olympics.
- from May 20 to September 20 (5 months)
- side show to the World's fair
- women in golf and tennis
- Eiffel Tower was built = little planning, games were a mess
What sports were a part of the Paris 1900 Olympics?
- motor racing
What is the marathon scandal?
- 3 french runners took gold, silver, and bronze
- a last minute change of course took the runners through a mud puddle
- 3 french runners were not muddy, everyone else was
Describe the St Louis 1904 Olympics.
- first Canadian team
- first Canadian gold medal
- women in archery only
- only 11 countries participated
- geographically St. Louis was hard to get to
- games stopped after 2 days and had Anthropology Days
What is the only summer games not to be staged in the usual 4 year cycle?
1906 Athens, Greece
What is the Big O(we)?
- 3 million dollar study to see why there was such huge cost overruns (1B total cost)
- finally paid off in 2006 (30 years)
The Olympics were formed for a _____ purpose.
______ have had more of an effect on the games than the games have had on ______.
Describe the politics in the 1936 Berlin Olympics.
games used by Nazis to promote their ideas of racial superiority
Describe the politics in the 1968 Mexico City Olympics.
Games used by American Black athletes to protest American policies concerning race
Describe the politics in the 1972 Munich Olympics.
games boycotted by most Arab nations. 11 Israeli athletes killed in terrorist incident at the Olympic village
Describe the politics in the 1976 Montreal Olympics.
games boycotted by most Arab nations, South Africa banned
Describe the politics in the 1980 Moscow Olympics.
games boycotted by USA and its allies in protest over Soviet attack on Afghanistan
Describe the politics in the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics.
games boycotted by Soviet Union and its allies in protest of American involvement in Nicaragua
Describe the politics in the 1988 (Seoul) and 1992 (Barcelona) Olympics.
South Africa still banned
Describe the politics in the 1996 Atlanta Olympics.
no one boycotted, no one banned
What are the 3 sociological perspectives?
- symbolic interactionism
- conflict theory
What is the level of analysis for symbolic interactions?
What is the level of analysis for functionalism?
What is the level of analysis for conflict theory?
What is the focus of symbolic interactionism?
- use of symbols
- face-to-face interactions
What is the focus of functionalism?
- relationship between the parts of society
- how aspects of society are functional (adaptive)
What is the focus of conflict theory?
- competition for scarce resources
- how the elite control the poor and weak
According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, people attach meanings to _____, then they act...
- act according to their subjective interpretation of these symbols
According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, what serves as the predominant symbol?
Symbolic interactionism neglects:
- the macro level of social interpretation (the big picture)
- miss the larger issues of society by focussing too closely
According to the functionalist perspective, each aspect of society is ______ and ...
- contributes to society's functioning as a whole
The conflict perspective focuses on the ____, _____, and ______ of society.
- ever changing nature
Who is George Orton?
- first Canadian Olympic champion
- U of Penn.
- Gold 2500m steeplechase
- Bronze 400m hurdles