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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (41):
1

Organs of avian digestive tract

Mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, ceca, large intestine, cloaca

2

Avian mouth

No teeth, no soft palate, small and poorly developed salivary glands, no digestion

3

Avian esophagus

Connects mouth to proventriculus, dilation=crop

4

Crop avian

Dilation of esophagus, primary fxn, food storage, moistens food, fermentation (some species) varies in size with eating habits

5

Avian Proventriculus

Varies in size with species, comparable to glandular stomach in mammals or abomasum in ruminants, gastric juice production, low pH, ingesta passes rapidly

6

Avian gizzard

Grinding organ, muscular, varies in size, grit for grinding fees particles, no enzymes secreted by enzymes from PV work here

7

Avian small intestine

Fxns in digestive and absorption, duodenum, jejunum and ileum, length varies, generally same enzymes as mammals

8

Avian ceca

Location at the junction of SI and LI, two presents, size varies by diet, some water absorption, some fiber digestion, water soluble vitamin synthesis

9

Avian LI

Relatively short, no distinct rectum or colon, main site of water absorption, vitamin K synthesis

10

Avian cloaca

Common orifice for feces and urine, copulation and egg laying in females

11

Canine mastication

Canine teeth- ripping and tearing
Molars- mastication
Salivary glands-lubrication of food

12

Canine chemical digestion

HCL, pepsin(oven)

13

Canine stomach types of digestion

Chemical, enzymatic, physical, mechanical

14

Canine pancreas enzymes

Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, amylase, lipase

15

Canine large intestine enzymes

Enterokinase, aminopeptidase, lactase, sucrase, maltase

16

Canine cecum

Not well developed

17

Canine LI (colons)

Water absorption, electrolyte absorption

18

Canine fermentation

Dependent on diet

19

Ruminant mouth

No upper incisors, dental pad, particle size reduced by teeth grinding, saliva (moistens and provides buffer for VFAs)

20

Ruminant esophagus

Same function as monogastrics

21

Ruminant complex stomach compartments

Rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum

22

Abomasum

True glandular stomach, lined with mucus membrane and gastric juice secreted

23

Rumen forestomachs

Stratified squamous epithelium, not glandular

24

Rumen anatomy

Act as anaerobic bacterial fermentation, undeveloped at birth, first place food goes, some food bypass anaerobic fermentation

25

Rumen storage of food

Consume larger amounts, can digest later, regurgitation and re mastication, forage processing machines

26

Rumen wall anatomy

Covered with papillae, small finger like projections, increased surface area, influence by diet and season

27

Rumen esophageal groove

Groove which can contract and form tube to bypass rumen/reticulum, empties into omasum

28

Esophageal groove function

Allow milk to pass directly to omasum and abomasum, keep milk out of young ruminants undeveloped rumen

29

Reticulum anatomy

Honey comb, site of microbial action And absorption of VFAs, pacemaker for rumen contractions

30

Reticulum function

Contractions start in reticulum, mixes rumen contents, heavy particles move to bottom, lighter ones float, lighter particles subject to rumination

31

Omasum anatomy

Some water absorption, some mechanical digestion, regulates particle size flowing to abomasum

32

Abomasum anatomy

True stomach, secretions, HCL-denatures protein, mucin and pepsin

33

SI and LI

Similar to non ruminants

34

Post gastric fermentation (cecum and colon)

5-15% cellulytic digestion can occur here, VFAs produced and absorbed in LI, water absorption

35

Rumen provides favorable environment

Warmth, moisture, daily food supply, pH controlled, dark- no UV light, mixing, oxygen free, end products removed, ruminates and masticates

36

Ruminant fermentation relationship

Microorganisms and animal live in symbiosis, animal benefit from MO digestions, MO have a place to live

37

Microbial species of fermentation

Bacteria- digest cellulose, starch, protein, 15-50 billion/mL
Protozoa- prey on bacteria 20,000-500,000mL
Yeast- aid in cellulose breakdown

38

How many MO in rumen

2.5 x 10^15

39

End products of fermentation

VFAs, microbial protein, ammonia, gas, heat, lipid alterations

40

Fermentation process

Starch and fiber-> VFA
Protein-> amino acid-> NH3 -> microbial protein
Unsaturated fats-> saturated fats

41

Microorganisms found in rumen

CHO, VFA