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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (81):
1

Nutrition

Study of the processes where feed nutrients are presented to and utilized by living cells for productive processes

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Nutrition affects

Reproduction
Health
Genetic potential
Physical ability
Emotional state
Production

3

Feed accounts for how much production cost

45-76%

4

Basic nutrionists

Study metabolism, cellular and sub cellular biochemistry

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Applied nutritionist

Cost effective animal feeding, real world problems

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Antoine Lavoisier

1743-1794, French man, founder of science of nutrition, head of weights and measures, combustion

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Nutrient

Any chemical, element or compound in the diet that supports normal reproduction, growth, lactation, or maintenance of life processes

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Essential nutrient

Can't be made by the body, can't be synthesized in great enough quantities to support life processes

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Nonessential nutrient

Can be made by the body

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Essential nutrient classification

Water, carbs, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals

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Monosaccharides

Glucose, fructose, galactose

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Disaccharides

Lactose, sucrose, maltose

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Polysaccharides

Starch- amylose, amylopectin
Cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin

14

Monogastrics need

Glucose

15

Ruminants need

volatile fatty acids

16

Ruminants can digest

Cellulose

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Monogastrics need

Starch

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Fats consist of what specific essential fatty acids

Linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic

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10 amino acids

Phenylaline
Valine
Threonine

Tryptophan
Isoleucine
Methionine

Histidine
Arginine
Leucine
Lysine

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Macro minerals- %in diet

Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, sulfur

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Micro minerals- ppm or ppb

Copper, iodine, cobalt, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, iron, selenium

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Vitamin classes

Fat soluble- absorbed with fat
Water soluble- not stored

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Fat soluble vitamins

A-vision
D-bone
E-antioxidant
K- blood clotting

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Water soluble vitamins

Biotin, choline, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C

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Energy

Carbs, fats, protein

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Water

Most common substance found on earth

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How many gallons of water does it take to produce 1 Lb of body weight

1368 gallons

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Properties of water

Liquid at variety of temps
Boils at 100 degrees C
Freezes 0 degrees C
High specific heat
High surface tension
High latent heat of vaporization
Polar solvent

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Functions of water

Transport medium
Temperature regulator
Lubricant
Cell turgidity and shape
Hydrolysis

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Water requirement is influence by

Environment, diet, age and stage of production

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Waters role in body heat regulation

Body heat production- cell is exothermic, activity, metabolism, digestion
Dissipation of heat- high specific heat and heat of vaporization

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Conditions desirable for evaporative heat loss

Low humidity, air movement, plenty of drinking water

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Water management to cool animals

Mist, tank, pond all periodic

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Sources of water

Free liquid, water in feed, metabolic water

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Metabolic water production

Fat produces most metabolic water

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Animal dehydration

Acute due to no water intake
Chronic which causes scours, UTI problems
Water intoxication

37

Amino acids are composed of

15% carbon
7% hydrogen
23% oxygen
16% nitrogen

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Formula for CP from nitrogen

%N X 6.25 = %CP

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Proteins involved in body metabolism

Enzymes, hormones, immune system, transport within body

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Enzymes

Lipase, Maltese, trypsin

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Hormones

Growth hormone, insulin
Regulate metabolism

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Immune system

Antibodies are proteins
IgG, IgA, IgM

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Transport within the body

Chylomicron
Albumin

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Glucogenic acids

Glycine, alanine, threonine, cystine, methionine
Converted to glucose

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Ketogenic amino acids

Lysine, leucine
Converted to acetyl CoA-> ketones

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Protein and AA deficiencies

Reduced growth
Reduce feed efficiency
Anorexia
Fatty liver
Infertility
Reduced birth weight
Reduced milk production

47

Minerals must be...?

Provided in diet

They are inorganic
Needed in small amounts
Needed for production maintenance and reproduction

48

Requirements for minerals

Age, physiological status, body storage, environment

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Minerals of concern in drinking water

Arsenide, cadmium, chromium, fluorine, lead, nitrates, nitrites, salt

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Loss of H20 affects

Lungs, urine, sweat

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Absorption

Occurs about every tissues
Passive diffusion

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Fats/ lipids

Wide variety, all hate water, 2.25 more energy than carbs

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Two types of lipids

Unsaturated- double bonds
saturated- single bonds

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Monoglyceride

One

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Calcium functions

Bone development, muscle contractions, blood clotting, primary mineral in body

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Calcium deficiency

Rickets, milk fever

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Phosphorus functions

Bone development, ATP, nucleic acid

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Phosphorus deficiency

Paralysis, tetany, reduced growth

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Magnesium functions

Bone development, energy metabolism, CNS

60

Magnesium deficiency

Grass tetany, convulsions

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Na/K/Cl functions

Electrolyte balance

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Na/K/Cl deficiency

Altered electrolyte balance, drink urine, stress, dehydration

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Sulfur- ruminants only- functions

Protein synthesis, wool growth

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Sulfur deficiency

Poor wool growth, poor microbial protein synthesis

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Copper function

Red blood cell formation, collagen formation, antibiotic effect

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Copper deficiency

Anemia, toxic to sheep

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Iron functions

Hemoglobin synthesis

68

Iron deficiency

Anemia, baby pigs especially

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Se functions

Antioxidant

70

Se deficiency

White muscle disease

71

Zinc functions

Bone growth, cofactors with insulin

72

Zinc deficiency

Parakeratosis

73

Calcium sources

Limestone, oyster shells

74

Phosphorus sources

Dicalcium phosphate, oyster shells

75

Magnesium sources

Magnesium oxide

76

Na/K/Cl sources

Salt

77

Sulfur sources

Sodium sulfate

78

What 3 chemicals do carbohydrates contain

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

79

Ratio of C:H:O in carbs

1:2:1

80

Carbs are the principle energetic source of

Livestock: starch or cellulose

81

Carbs occupy how much of the diet

80%