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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (100):
1

What fat soluble vitamins do all animals require

Vitamin A

2

Vitamin A function

Vision, maintenance, bone growth

3

Vitamin A deficiency

Night blindness, red reproduction performance and bone growth

4

What vitamin has the same characteristics as Selenium (Se)

Vitamin E

5

Vitamin E functions

Peroxidase activity, carcass quality

6

Vitamin E deficiency

White muscle disease

7

Vitamin D sources

Sunlight-skin

8

Vitamin D function

Ca metabolism and absorption

9

Vitamin D deficiency

Abnormal bone

10

What vitamin is responsible for blood clotting

Vitamin K

11

Vitamin K functions in avians

Intestinal MCO synthesis

12

Vitamin K antagonist

Warfarin, dicoumarol

13

Vitamin C functions

Energy metabolism, immune system, prevent scurvy

14

Deficiency results in

Low growth, low efficiency, no storage, not stable

15

Thiamine deficiency

Beriberi-pow

16

Niacin deficiency

Pellagra

17

Iodine deficiency

Thyroid enlargement

18

Pantothenic acid deficiency

Burning feet

19

Nutrition composition of feeds

CP, minerals, vitamins, energy

20

What is proximate analysis

Set of chemical/analytical procedures developed in Germany. Procedure to estimate nutrient composition

21

Estimates of nutrient value of food

H2O
CP-crude protein
Ether extract- fat
Ash- mineral
CF- crude fiber
Nitrogen free extract

22

Dry matter estimates

Water content of feed

23

CP measures

Kjedldahl method- %nitrogen x 6.25

24

Ether extract measures

Lipid (fat content)
Weigh sample-extract with ether-weigh again = what is lost is lipids

25

Fat is

Energy packed. 2.25 times more energy than CHO

26

Ash measures

Burned sample at 600 Celsius, what is left is ash or minerals

27

Carbohydrates are measured by

Crude fiber and nitrogen free extract

28

Crude fiber measured

Simulate digestion and fermentation

29

Nitrogen free extract measured

NFE = 100 - (%cp + h2o + EE + CF + ash)

30

Van Soest method to describe forages

Crude fiber measure not good enough for ruminants, ruminants better utilize forages, needed better system that included amount and type of fiber (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin)

31

Neutral detergent fiber (NDF)

Hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin
Predict intake

32

Acid detergent fiber (ADF)

Cellulose and lignin
Predict digestibility or energy content

33

Heat is measured in

Calories or joules

34

What is a calorie

Heat required to raise temp of water by 1 Celsius

35

Energy is derived from

CHO- sugar starches fiber
Fat
Protein

36

Predicting energy value of feeds

Chemical analysis- assigns energy value to nutrients
Bomb calorimetry- combust sample of feed, heat give off = number of calories for combustion, gross energy(GE)

37

Total digestible nutrients (TDN)

Predict energy content for ruminants

38

Digestion

Breakdown of large molecules to simpler, smaller chemical compounds that can be absorbed

39

Physical digestion

Chewing- mastication
Grinding in GI tract
Omassum- ruminant
Digestive turbulence

40

Three main methods of digestion of food

Mechanical/physical, chemical, enzymatic

41

Chemical digestion

HCL- stomach to protein
Bile acids produced by liver

42

Enzymatic digestion

Proteins, specific substrates (lactase for lactose), narrow pH, cofactors

43

Absorption

Set of processes that result in passage of small molecules from lumen of gut through cells of GI tract to bloodstream

44

Absorption is dependent on

Large surface area and intestinal modifications to increase surface area

45

Types of absorption

Passive diffusion, active transport, facilitated diffusion, phagocytosis

46

Passive diffusion

Passage of substance from lumen to intestine due to concentration gradient, high to low, no energy

47

Active transport

Absorption from linen to intestine against concentration gradient, low to high, requires energy and carrier protein

48

Facilitated diffusion

Similar to active transport except not agains concentration gradient and no energy, high to low, carrier protein but no energy

49

Phagocytosis

Absorption when part of villi cell breaks off and engulfs a nutrient, no digestion, absorbs large molecules

50

Digestive tract dictates what

An animal can consume

51

Digestive system of dog

Mono-gastric carnivore

52

Pig digestive system

Monogastric omnivore

53

Horse digestive system

Monogastric herbivore

54

Sheep digestive system

Ruminant herbivore

55

Steps of digestion

1. Prehension
2. Mastication
3. Salivation
4. Swallowing
5. Stomach
6. Small intestine
7. Large intestine
8. Defecation
9. Urination

56

Prehension

First step of digestion
Definition: seizing and conveying of food to the mouth

57

Means of prehension

Biped- use upper limbs
Quadrupeds- use mouth teeth and lips

58

Carnivores use what for prehension

Canine teeth- ripping and tearing
Strong jaws
Upper and lower molars

59

Herbivores use what for prehension

Cows- mobile tongue to seize grass, dental pad, lower incisors, upper and lower molars
Sheep- mobile lip, dental pad, lower incisors, more selective than cow
Horse- mobile lips, nibble, upper and lower incisors, graze closer than cow

60

Avian prehension

No lips, no teeth, extreme diversity

61

Mastication

Vertical movements of the jaw which cruse food particles between teeth (physical/mechanical digestion)

62

Herbivore mastication

Form a bolus, swallow, rumen, regurgitate, marinate more, ruminate

63

Salivation

Secretion and mixing saliva with food

64

Salivary glands are located

Parotid- beneath ear
Submandibular- either side of jaw
Sublingual- underneath tongue

65

Composition of saliva

99% water
Mucin
Electrolytes
Salivary amylase (not in cattle dogs cats or horses)

66

Saliva functions

Lubrication of food
Solvent
Clean oral cavity
Washes dental cavity
Buffer- NaCO3 in ruminants
Nitrogen recycling in ruminants (urea)
Phosphorus- source for ruminants

67

Swelling or deglutition

Reflex of passing anything from the mount through the esophagus to the stomach/rumen

68

Steps of swallowing or deglutition

1. Neural reflex
- voluntary, first 1/3 of swallow process
- involuntary, last 2/3 of swallow
2. Bolus moves down peristaltic wave
3. Cardiac sphincter- end of esophagus, don't not allow reflux up esophagus

69

Chief cells produce

Pepsinogen

70

Parietal cells produce

HCL

71

Neck cells produce

Mucus

72

HCL in the stomach does what

Denatures proteins, activates pepsinogen to pepsin, gives optimal pH(2-2.5), kills bacteria

73

Pepsin does what

Cleaves proteins making shorter chain length

74

Rennin does what

Acts on milk protein

75

What keeps the stomach from digesting itself?

Mucin secreted by liner cells, provides coating, HCL is diluted by saliva and digestion, urease (enzyme that breaks down urea) is a buffer, enzymes in inactive form (zymogen)

76

Increased surface area in SI

Folds, villi, microvilli

77

Duodenum

First part SI, primary site for digestion, pyloric sphincter to jejunum

78

Jejunum

Second segment, most villi, primary site for absorption, duodenum to ileum

79

Ileum

Third part, secondary site of absorption, jejunum to large intestine

80

Bile

Made in liver, stored in gall bladder

81

Bile function

Detergent action-solubilizes fat
Forms complex with fatty acid- aids in absorption of fat

82

Pancreatic juice

Secretion from pancreas that contains very potent digestive enzymes, contains buffers (HCO3 and NaCO3 that neutralize pH)

83

Main pancreatic juice enzymes

Trypsin/chymotrypsin
Carboxypeptidase
Aminopeptidase
Intestinal lipase
Amylase
Other enzymes

84

Duodenal juice

Secreted by brush border of SI, contains enzymes secreted by intestinal mucus, activates tryspinogen to tryspin

85

Coprophagy

Eating of feces

86

Defecation definition

Discharge of excrement from rectum or cloaca

87

Contents of fecal matter

Water, undigested feed, residues of dishes rice enzymes, sloughed cells, bacteria

88

Components of urine

Urea- animals
Uric acid- birds
Ammonia
Minerals- Cl, K, P, Ana
Water
Glucose and small CHOs

89

Substances found in urine should generally be considered

Waste products of metabolism rather than digestion

90

Enzymes in swine digestion

Trypsin (pancreas)
Chymotrypsin (pancreas)
Carboxypeptidase (pancreas)
Aminopeptidase (brush border)

91

Trypsin function

Initially secreted as trypsinogen activated by Ca ions and enzymes from brush border, breaks down protein into amino acids and peptides

92

Chymotrypsin function

Secreted as chrymotrypsinigen, activated by trypsin, breakdown proteins to peptides and amino acids

93

Carboxypeptidase function

Secreted as procarboxypeptidase, activated by trypsin, acts on peptides, break down to amino acids

94

Aminopeptidase function

Act on small peptides, breakdown to amino acids

95

Small intestine in swine have

Pancreatic juice- enzymatic
Bile-chemical
Duodenal juice- enzymatic
Movement of intestinal wall- mechanical

96

Bile digestion in swine

Emulsified fat
Digestion and absorption of fat
Aids in absorption of water soluble vitamins
Activates lipase

97

Pancreatic lipase in swine

Converts fats into fatty acids and glycerol
Action most effective after fats have been emulsified by the bile

98

Large intestine function in swine

Absorb water, VFA and acts as reservoir for waste materials

99

Pancreatic amylase in swin

Converts starch to maltose

100

Brush border enzymes in swine

Maltase- converts maltose to glucose
Sucrase- converts sucrose to glucose and fructose
Lactase- converts lactose to glucose and galactose