Exam 3: Chapter 8, 9, 10 and 11 Flashcards Preview

Marriage and Family Relationships > Exam 3: Chapter 8, 9, 10 and 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3: Chapter 8, 9, 10 and 11 Deck (41):
1

Fertility Rate

A measure reported as: 1. average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime 2. number of children born per 1,000 women ages 15-44 3. number of children born per 1,000 population

2

Mortality Rate

A measure of the number of deaths in a population

3

Pronatalism

A cultural value that encourages childbearing

4

Direct Financial Costs

Out-of-pocket expenses for things such as food, clothing, housing, and education

5

Opportunity Cost

Lost opportunities for income by working only part-time or not at all because of children

6

Infertility

The inability to conceive a child

7

Assisted reproductive technology

All fertility treatments in which either egg or sperm (or both) are handled

8

Surrogacy

The act of giving birth to a child for another person or couple who then adopts or takes legal custody of the child

9

Traditional Surrogacy

A type of surrogacy where the man's sperm is implanted in the surrogate through artificial insemination

10

Gestational Surrogacy

A type of surrogacy where the intended mother's eggs is combined with the man's sperm and implanted in the surrogate through in-virto fertilization

11

Medicalization of Childbirth

The belief that childbirth is a medical event in need of drugs and technological intervention

12

Birth Centers

Freestanding facilities (usually with close access to, but not affiliated with, a hospital) where childbirth is approached as a normal, healthy process

13

Closed adoption

An adoption where identifying information is sealed and unavailable to all parties

14

Open adoption

A type of adoption that involves direct contact between the biological and adoptive parents

15

Content Analysis

A research method that systemically examines the content of materials

16

Public adoption

An adoption that occurs through licensed public agencies

17

Private adoption

An adoption arranged directly between adoptive parents and the biological birth mother, usually with the assistance of an attorney

18

Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA)

An act that requires employers with over 50 employees to provide 12 weeks of unpaid leave to eligible employees (both men and women) to care for themselves or their immediate families with specified medical conditions

19

Family allowance (or child allowance)

A cash benefit to families provided by the government to help offset the costs of raising children

20

Socialization

The lifelong process by which we acquire the cultural values and skills needed to function as human beings and participate in society

21

id

According to Freud, the part of the personality that includes biological drives and needs for immediate gratification

22

ego

According to Freud, the rational component of personality that attempts to balance the need for immediate gratification with the demands of society

23

superego

According to Freud, this is our conscience, which draws upon our cultural values and norms to help us understand why we cannot have everything we want

24

sensorimotor stage

Piaget's first stage of cognitive development (from birth to age 2) in which infants and toddlers understand the world primarily through touch, sucking, listening, and looking

25

Preoperational thought

Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, occurring from age 2 through 7, as the child learns language, symbolic play, and symbolic drawing, but does not grasp abstract concepts

26

Concrete Operational Thought

Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, which occurs between the ages of 7 and 12 when children begin to see the causal connections in their surroundings, and can manipulate categories, classification systems, and hierarchies in groups

27

Formal Operational Thought

Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development, beginning at adolescence and continuing through adulthood, in which children develop capacities for abstract thought and can conceptualize more complex issues or rules that can be used for problem solving

28

Looking-glass self

Cooley's suggestion that we come to see ourselves as others perceive and respond to us

29

Role Taking

According to Mead, the process of mentally assuming the role of another person to understand the world from their point of view and to anticipate their response to us

30

Social learning theory

Developed by Alfred Bandura, the theory that behavior is learned through modeling and reinforcement

31

Racial (or ethnic) socialization

Teaching minority children about prejudice, discrimination, and the coping skills necessary to develop and maintain a strong and healthy self-image

32

Authoritative Parenting Style

A parenting style that is demanding and maintains high levels of control over the children, but is also warm and receptive

33

Permissive Parenting

A parenting style that places few controls or demands on the child

34

Authoritarian Parenting Style

A parenting style that is strict, punitive, and not very warm

35

Living wage

Wages that are above federal or state minimum wage levels, usually ranging from 100 to 130 percent of the poverty line

36

Nonstandard work schedules

Job schedules that are part-time, subcontracted, temporary in nature, occur at night, or offer irregular work schedules

37

Medicaid

The federal-state health care program for eligible poor of all ages

38

Medicare

The federal health care programs for the elderly

39

Household Labor

In general, the unpaid work done to maintain family members and/or a home

40

Routine household labor

Nondiscretionary, routine tasks that can be postponed, such as cooking, washing dishes, or cleaning

41

Occasional labor

Household tasks that are more time-flexible and more discretionary, such as household repairs, yard care, or paying bills