Exam 3 - Diabetes day 1 jeopardy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 - Diabetes day 1 jeopardy Deck (48):
1

These are 2 drug classes recommend for DM patients with HTN

ACE-I or ARB's

2

This is the class of medication recommended for patients with dyslipidemia

Statins

3

These are 2 medications that are FDA approved for neuropathy

Lyrica and cymbalta

4

These are some general rules regarding how we treat the elderly with DM

Less stringent; A1C less than 8; are they able to have help at home, cognitive function, life expectancy

5

These are common signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia

Polys (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia) and fatigue

6

This is how frequent we need to test a symptomatic patient if all tests are negative

at least every 3 years

7

to help prevent progression of DM and complications, all patients should do the following

exercise at least 30 min most days of the week, increase fiber, decrease carbs, decrease sugar intake

8

these are the normal values for A1C fasting glucose, and oral glucose load

A1C < 5.7%
Fasting glucose: <140mg/dL

9

these are some important points in regards to the differences in how kids/adolescents respond to insulin compared to adults

-changes in insulin sensitivity due to hormone changes
-growth patterns
-supervision at school and daycare

10

insulin is secreted from this organ and these cells

beta cells from pancreas

11

asymptomatic patients with a BMI greater than or equal to ___ in adults of any age and who have one or more additional risk factors for DM should be tested

25

12

we want to prevent infection...this is how we do this

proper vaccinations

13

these are the diagnostic criteria for A1C, fasting glucose, random glucose and oral glucose tolerance test for DM

A1C: ≥ 6.5%
Fasting glucose: ≥ 126mg/dL
OGT: ≥ 200mg/dL
random glucose + symptoms: ≥ 200mg/dL

14

these are the diagnostic criteria for A1C, fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test for pre-diabetes

A1C: 5.7-6.4%
Fasting glucose: 100-125mg/dL
OGT: ≥ 140-199mg/dL

15

this type of DM is much more common in US

type 2

16

this is the goal HTN for a patient with DM (according to the ADA)

< 140/80 and in some cases <130/80 (according to the ADA)

17

these are 2 oral agents that are not recommended to use in gestational DM

biguainides and TZD's

18

in patients that are asymtomatic an do not have any risk factors, this is when you start to test

> age 45

19

this is the number of people who have DM in the US

~ 25.8 million

20

this is the common macrovascular complication

CAD

21

the best treatment for gestational DM is?

diet and exercise

22

these are risk factors for type 2

•Overweight/Obese
•Sedentary lifestyle
•Family Hx of diabetes
•Cardiovascular disease
•Latino/Hispanic, Non-Hispanic black, Asian American, Native American/Pacific Islander
•Previously identified impaired glucose tolerance/impair glucose fasting
•HTN or on HTN meds
•Increased levels of triglycerides (>250)
•Low concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<35)
•Risk Factors for Gestational DM
• Hx of gestational diabetes
• Hx of delivery of an infant w/ birth weight over 9lbs
• Polycystic ovary syndrome

23

these are the general way that we can reduce our macro vascular and microvascular complications

keep glucose consistent and maintain HTN

24

these are the 4 causes of type 2 DM

•Insulin resistance in muscle and adipose tissue
•Progressive decline in pancreatic insulin secretion
•Unrestrained hepatic glucose production
•Other hormonal deficiencies

25

this is how many years a pts. life expectancy is decreased when they have DM and are diagnosed <40 y/o

12-19 yrs

26

these are some risk factors for gestational DM

- >25 y/o
-overweight
-family hx of DM2
-hx of abnormal glucose metabolism
-hx of poor obstetric outcomes
-hx of gestational diabetes
-hx of delivery of an infant w/ birth weight over 9lbs
-Polycystic ovary syndrome
-Ethnicity

27

this is the LDL goal for a patient who is DM

<100 (less than 70 is optimal)

28

these are some common microvascular complications

retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy

29

these are some risk factors for type 1 DM

genetics

30

We want to prevent infection...this is how we do it

Vaccinations
--> flu
--> pneumococcal

31

These are the diagnostic criteria for A1C, fasting glucose, random glucose and oral glucose tolerance test for DM

AIC: > 6.5%
Fasting glucose: > 126n mg/dL
OGT: > 200 mg/dL
Random Glucose plus symptoms: > 200 mg/dL

32

These are the diagnostic criteria for A1C, fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test for pre-diabetes

A1C: 5.7-6.4%
Fasting Glucose: 100-125 mg/dL
OGT: >140-199 mg/dL

33

This type of DM is much more common in the US

Type 2

34

This is the goal HTN for a patient w/ DM

140/80 and in some cases < 130/80 (according to the ADA)

35

These are 2 oral agents that are not recommend to use in gestational DM

Metformin (Biguainides)
TZD's

36

In pats that are asymptomatic and do not have any risk factors, this is when you start to test

45

37

This is the number of people w/ diabetes in the US

25.8 million

38

This is the common macrovascular complication

Coronary artery disease

39

The best tx for gestational DM is the following

Diet and exercise

40

These are risk factors for type 2

Obesity
Sedentary life style
Family hx
Cardiovascular diseases
HTN

41

These are the general way that we can reduce our macrovascular and microvascular complications

Manage HTN and glucose

42

These are the 4 causes of type 2 DM

1. Insulin resistance
2. Liver producing glucose
3. Pancreas decreases insulin production
4. Hormone deficiencies

43

This is how many yrs a pts life expectancy is decreased when they have DM and are diagnosed < 40 yo

12-19 years

44

These are some risk factors for gestational DM

Baby > 9 lbs
Previous hx
Overweight
Polycystic ovarian dz
Over 25 years old

45

This is the LDL goal for a pt who is DM

<100 (less than 70 is optimal)

46

These are some common microvascular complications

Retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy

47

These are some risk factors for type 1 DM

Genetics!!
Sometimes a virus can trigger it

48

This is the cause of type 1 DM

Autoimmune destruction of beta cells