Exam 3 Neuro Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Q4 Clin Med III (GI) > Exam 3 Neuro Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3 Neuro Anatomy Deck (62):
1

Epidural Hematoma involves what vessel?

Middle meningeal artery

2

Subdural Hematoma involves what vessel?

Bridging veins

3

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage involves what vessel?

Aneurysm U in Circle of Willis

4

Review anatomy slides at beginning of lecture

.

5

Contents of Cavernous Sinus? (3)

All EOM: Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), Abducent (VI)

2 branches of CN V: Ophthalmic (V1), Maxillary (V2)

Internal Carotid Artery

6

Frontal Lobe controls? (4)

1) Executive fxn: Thinking/Planning/Organizing/Problem solving
2) Emotions
3) Behaviors
4) Personality

7

Temporal Lobe controls? (3)

1) Memory
2) Understanding
3) Language

8

Parietal Lobe controls? (4)

1) Perception
2) Making sense of world
3) Arithmetic
4) Spelling

9

Occipital Lobe controls?

Vision

10

Motor Cortex controls?

Sensory Cortex controls?

Movement

Sensations

11

Midbrain contains what CNs?

II, III, IV

12

Pons contains what CNs?

V, VI, VII, VIII

13

Medulla contains what CNs?

IX, X, XI, XII

14

Crossed Signs is?

Ipsilateral CN deficits and contralat body weakness

15

Lateral spinothalamic tract crosses where?

level of spinal cord

16

Lateral corticospinal tract crosses where?

level of medulla

17

Brown Sequard Synd is?

Results in?

Partial spinal cord transection

Loss of pain, temp, touch on opposite side

Loss of motor, vibration, position, deep touch on same side

18

Central cord lesion results in?

Loss of pain, temp

19

Anterior cord lesion results in?

Loss of movement, pain, temp

20

Posterior column lesion results in?

Loss of vibration, proprioception

21

Posterior/Lateral column lesion results in?

Loss of movement, vibration, proprioception

22

Cauda Equina Synd results in? (6)

EMERGENCY
Asymmetric
Severe pain/weakness of low back/legs
Flaccid paralysis of legs
Saddle anesthesia
Late, bowel/bladder problems

23

Conus Medullaris Synd? (7)

EMERGENCY
Symmetric/Bilateral
Less severe pain of low back/legs, perianal
Mod weakness
Saddle anesthesia
Early, SEVERE bowel/bladder problems

24

Lesion of Cortex results in? (3)

Aphasia
Hemianopia (blind over part of field)
Hemiparesis/sensory of face/arms

25

Lesion of Subcortical Structures results in? (2)

(Structures: Internal capsule, Basal gang)

Dense hemiplagia
Abn movements

26

Lesion of Cerebellum results in?

Ipsilateral truncal or limb Ataxia/Dysmetria (under/over shooting)

27

Lesion of Brain Stem results in?

CN palsies
Crossed Signs

28

Lesion of Spinal Cord results in?

Paraparesis
Sensory
Bowel/Bladder
Saddle anesthesia

29

Lesion of motor neuron results in?

No sensory issue
Fasciculations (spontaneous contractions)

30

Lesion of Peripheral Nerve results in?

Distal weakness/Sensory
U stocking/glove
No or hyporeflex

31

Lesion of NMJ results in?

Fatigability
No sensory issue
Normal DTR

32

Lesion of Muscle results in?

Symmetric, Proximal weakness
No sensory issue

33

All possible pathologies:
VITAMINCDE

Vascular
Inflammatory
Trauma
Autoimmune
Metabolic
Infectious
Neoplasm
Congenital
Drugs
Epilepsy/seizure

34

Neuro exam should include? (8)

Mental status
Neck/spine
Cranial nn
Motor
Sensory
Reflexes
Coordination
Station/Gait

35

Mental Status includes?

Level of Arousal:
Alert
Lethargic
Stupor
Obtunded
Coma

36

CN II/Optic exam should include? (5)


RAPD is?

Visual acuity
Color vision (red desaturation)
Visual fields
Fundo exam
Pupils (direct afferent constriction)

RAPD = relative afferent pupillary defect,
CN II lesion seen when direct light produces no constriction in either eye because the signal never reaches the brain

37

CN III moves eyes how?
Controls lid how?
Control pupil how?

IV?

VI?

review slide 70, 73 - 76

When looking at pt

III = Up, Down, 11:00, 1:00 (both eyes)
Nose (9:00 L, 3:00 R)
Cheeks (5:00 L, 7:00 R)
Opens lid
Accommodation, consen constr, efferent direct const


IV = Lips (7:00 L, 5:00 R)

VI = Ears (3:00 L, 9:00 R)

38

CN V/Trigeminal exam should include? (3)

Sensation
MM of mastication
Sensory corneal reflex (cotton whips)

39

CN VII/Facial exam should include?

Facial expression
Motor corneal reflex

Closes eyelid

40

Central facial palsy affects which mm?

Contralat lower facial expression
(Upper face preserved)

41

Peripheral facial palsy affects which mm?

Ipsilat up/low facial expression

42

Pupillary Reflex: In on what CN?

Out on what CN?

CN II

CN III

43

Corneal Reflex: In on what CN?

Out on what CN?

CN V1

CN VII

44

Gag Reflex: In on what CN?

Out on what CN?

CN IX

CN X

45

Vestibulo-ocular Reflex is what?

Eyes move opposite way of head to be able to keep looking at target

e.g. head rotates right, eyes rotate left

46

Vestibulo-ocular Reflex: In on what CN?

Out on what CN?

CN VIII

CN III and VI

47

Vestibulo-ocular Reflex: Cerebral damage affects this how?

Nystagmus

48

Vestibulo-ocular Reflex: Brainstem damage affects this how?

Eye reflex is absent
Eyes stay fixed in head, they follow head

49

CN XI/Spinal Accessory controls what mm?

Sternocleidomastoids -> turn head

Trapezius -> shrug shoulders

50

CN XII/Hypoglossal lesion presents how?

Paralysis of the ipsolateral side of tongue

Sticking tongue out -> looks like contralateral side of tongue "licks the lesion" side

51

Motor Exam should include? (4)

Tone: spasticity, rigidity, flaccidity

Bulk: atrophy, hypertrophy, fasciculations

Abnormal movement

Strength : proximal to distal

52

Spasticity is from lesion located where?

Is dependent or independent on velocity?

UMN

Dependent
(The faster the stretch, the more the resistance. Resists start of movement, then let's go.)

53

Rigidity is from lesion located where?

Is dependent or independent on velocity?

Basal ganglia

Independent
(Causes cogwheel rigidity - rigid thru entire ROM))

54

Sensory Exam should include? (5)

Distal to Proximal:

Pin
Thermal
Touch
Joint position
Vibration

55

DTR Spinal Nerve Roots:

Biceps?

Brachioradialis?

Triceps?

Patellar?

Achilles?

Biceps = C5, C6

Brachioradialis = C6

Triceps = C7

Patellar = L4

Achilles = S1

56

Coordination Exam should include? (4)

Finger-to-nose
Heel-Knee
Thumb tapping/Toe tapping
Rapid alternating mvmts

57

Station and Gait Exam should include? (6)

Posture
Romberg
Gait/Arm swing
Heel walk
Toe walk
Tandem gait

58

Upper Motor Neuron weakness presentation? (3)

Spastic
Hyper-reflex
Babinski

59

Lower Motor Neuron weakness presentation? (4)

Flaccid
Hypo-reflex
Atrophy
Fasciculations

60

Cortical neural lesions presentation? (6)

Face/Arm more affected than Legs if Middle Cerebral Artery

Legs > Face/Arms if Anterior Cerebral Artery

Hemi-sensory/motor

Aphasia
Apraxia
Agnosia

61

Subcortical neural lesions presentation? (3)

Dense unilat motor or sensory
Face/Arm/Leg equally affected
Movement disorders

62

Frontal Eye Fields turn eyes in which direction?

Lesions here present how?

Towards the opposite direction (right field turns eyes left)

"Look at your lesion"
e.g. right frontal lesion causes right gaze preference

Hemianopia is opposite visual fields
e.g. left hemispheres are blind