GI Diagnostics Flashcards Preview

Q4 Clin Med III (GI) > GI Diagnostics > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI Diagnostics Deck (52):
1

Abdominal X-Ray findings:

Black?

White?

Grey?

Dark grey?

Intense white?

Black = gas

White = calcification

Grey = soft tissue

Dark grey = fat

Intense white = metal

2

3-Way View Abd X-Ray Series includes?

1) Ant/Post w/ pt supine (KUB)

2) A/P w/ pt upright (better visual of fluids)

3) Post/Ant (sees air under diaph, chest path)

3

3-Way View Abd X-Ray Series indicated when?

Abd pain, N/V, distention

suspected intest obstr, perforation, intuss

4

Abd X-Ray findings w/ Obstruction?

dilated bowel proximal to obstr,
collapsed bowel distal,
air fluid levels

5

Paralytic Ileus is?

Abd X-Ray findings w/ Paralytic Ileus?

Non-mechanical obstr (bowel doesn't work but not because of obstruction)

dilated bowel
gas in small and large intest

6

Abd X-Ray findings w/ Perforation?

free air outside bowel

7

Abdominal US findings:

Dark?

White?

Dark = hypoechoic
e.g. aorta, bile ducts, abscess, cyst

White = echogenic (solid)
e.g. tumors

8

Doppler US provides info on what?

blood flow

9

Abd US indicated when? (7)

Abd pain
Elevated LFTs
Liver dz
Renal fail
Pancreas
Gallbladder (preferred test for this)
S/P (status post) kidney, liver, pancreas transplant

10

Abd US (P) findings?

cysts, abscess, tumor,
dilated bowel duct,
gallstones/polyps
inflammation

11

Abdominal/Pelvic CT typically used for what organs?

renal
GU
pelvic

12

CT contrast?

IV or PO iodine
No contrast used for renal CTs

13

Ant/Post CT indicated when? (5)

Abd pain/distention
N/V
Diarrhea/Constipation
Rectal bleeed
Jaundice
Pancreatic (preferred test for this)

14

Ant/Post CT (P) findings?

similar to US

Spleen tumor, lacer, hematoma, splenic vein thrombosis

Abd Aorta aneurysm

15

A/P CT findings w/ Pancreatitis?

Acute = inflamm
Chronic = calcifications

16

Other uses for A/P CT? (3)

Virtual colonoscopy/angiography

Visualization during bx or aspiration

Monitor dzs

17

A/P CT contraindication? (5)

Preggos
Unstable pts
Obesity
Contrast allergy
High creatinine

18

A/P CT complications? (2)

Contrast allergy
Contrast-caused acute renal fail

19

A/P CT precautions?

Metformin - must hold for 48 hrs post contrast (cause acidosis)

High radiation

20

HIDA Scan is?

Hepatoiminodiacetic Acid Scan,
gallbladder nuclear scan,
cholescintigraphy

IV radioactive tracer extracted by liver, excreted into bile into gallbladder

21

HIDA Scan ordered w/ what for best results?

CCK (cholecystokinin) stim test and ejection fraction

22

HIDA indicated when?

suspected acalculous cholecystitis
(non-stone obstruction of cystic duct causing inflamm of gallbladder)

23

HIDA findings w/ acalculous cholecystitis? (3)

No radionuclide in GB w/i 60 min

Ejection fraction < 35%

Test reproduced sxs

24

HIDA contraindications?

No preggos

25

Upper GI (UGI) Series is?

Used for?

Fluoroscopy (real-time moving x-ray) w/ barium sulfate contrast

visualization of esophagus, stomach, start of duodenum

26

Esophagram/Barium Swallow is?

Like UGI but on throat and esophagus only

27

UGI indicated when? (5)

Dysphagia
GERD sxs
Early satiety
PUD
Obst/inflamm

28

UGI (P) findings?

Hiatal hernia (stom above diaph)

Cancers (strictures, obstr, filling defects, tumors)

Ulcers
Diverticula
Extrinsic compression
Perforation

29

UGI for perforations, use what contrast?

H2O-soluble Gastrografin

30

UGI contraindications? (4)

Preggos
Complete bowel obstruction
Suspected upper GI perforation
Unstable vitals

31

UGI complications? (2)

Aspiration
Constipation from barium

32

Barium Enema is?

Lower GI series:
barium w/ fluoroscopy of colon and distal small bowel

(P) alternate to colonoscopy

33

Barium Enema (P) therapeutic use?

reduce non-strangulated intuss

34

Barium Enema findings?

similar to UGI
Inflamm bowel dz (appears as narrowed colon due to swollen bowel walls)

35

Barium Enema contraindication? (4)

Preggos
Megacolon
Suspected perf
Unstable vitals

36

Barium Enema complications? (2)

Perforation
Fecal impact from barium

37

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is?

Direct visual of up GI w/ fiberoptic scope

Diagnostic and therapeutic

38

EGD indicated when? (10)

Weight loss/Dysphagia/Early satiety
Epigastric pain
N/V abd pain
GERD
Esoph varices (swollen v.v.)
Hematemesis/Melena
Iron def anemia
Abn UGI
Enteropathies (e.g. celiac)
Obstruction

39

EGD findings?

similar to UGI
Arteriovenous malformations
Obstructions
Web/Rings (narrowings)
Infection

40

EGD contraindications? (4)

Bleed
Perforation
Esoph diverticula (risk perf)
Recent GI surgery

41

EGD complications? (3)

Perforation
Bleed if bx
Aspiration of gastric contents

42

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is?

Fiberoptic scope w/ radio dye of Bile and Pancreas

43

Magnetic Resonance CP is?

MR used to visual biliary tree and pancreatic ducts

44

ERCP indicated when?

Obstructive jaundice
Obstruction of bile/pancrea ducts

45

ERCP therapeutic uses?

Sphincterotomies
Stone removal
Stent placement
Biopsy

46

ERCP contraindications? (2)

Inaccessible ampulla of Vater
Acute pancreatitis

47

ERCP complications? (4)

Pancreatitis
Perforation
G- blood infect
Aspiration of gastric content

48

Colonoscopy is?

fiberoptic scope of rectum, colon, terminal ileum

Diagnostic and therapeutic

Requires bowel prep

49

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy?

Same as colonoscopy but limited to rectum and sigmoid

50

Colonoscopy indicated when? (6)

CA screen/polyp removal/Bx
Inflamm bowel dz
Hematochezia/Diarr
Abnormal BE or CT
Foreign body removal
Decompress volvulus (twisted bowel)

51

Colonoscopy contraindications? (5)

Severe bleeding
Perforation
Recent colon surgery
Toxic megacolon
Active diverticulitis

52

Colonoscopy complications? (2)

Perforation
Bleeding