Flashcards in GI Diagnostics Deck (52):
Abdominal X-Ray findings:
Black = gas
White = calcification
Grey = soft tissue
Dark grey = fat
Intense white = metal
3-Way View Abd X-Ray Series includes?
1) Ant/Post w/ pt supine (KUB)
2) A/P w/ pt upright (better visual of fluids)
3) Post/Ant (sees air under diaph, chest path)
3-Way View Abd X-Ray Series indicated when?
Abd pain, N/V, distention
suspected intest obstr, perforation, intuss
Abd X-Ray findings w/ Obstruction?
dilated bowel proximal to obstr,
collapsed bowel distal,
air fluid levels
Paralytic Ileus is?
Abd X-Ray findings w/ Paralytic Ileus?
Non-mechanical obstr (bowel doesn't work but not because of obstruction)
gas in small and large intest
Abd X-Ray findings w/ Perforation?
free air outside bowel
Abdominal US findings:
Dark = hypoechoic
e.g. aorta, bile ducts, abscess, cyst
White = echogenic (solid)
Doppler US provides info on what?
Abd US indicated when? (7)
Gallbladder (preferred test for this)
S/P (status post) kidney, liver, pancreas transplant
Abd US (P) findings?
cysts, abscess, tumor,
dilated bowel duct,
Abdominal/Pelvic CT typically used for what organs?
IV or PO iodine
No contrast used for renal CTs
Ant/Post CT indicated when? (5)
Pancreatic (preferred test for this)
Ant/Post CT (P) findings?
similar to US
Spleen tumor, lacer, hematoma, splenic vein thrombosis
Abd Aorta aneurysm
A/P CT findings w/ Pancreatitis?
Acute = inflamm
Chronic = calcifications
Other uses for A/P CT? (3)
Visualization during bx or aspiration
A/P CT contraindication? (5)
A/P CT complications? (2)
Contrast-caused acute renal fail
A/P CT precautions?
Metformin - must hold for 48 hrs post contrast (cause acidosis)
HIDA Scan is?
Hepatoiminodiacetic Acid Scan,
gallbladder nuclear scan,
IV radioactive tracer extracted by liver, excreted into bile into gallbladder
HIDA Scan ordered w/ what for best results?
CCK (cholecystokinin) stim test and ejection fraction
HIDA indicated when?
suspected acalculous cholecystitis
(non-stone obstruction of cystic duct causing inflamm of gallbladder)
HIDA findings w/ acalculous cholecystitis? (3)
No radionuclide in GB w/i 60 min
Ejection fraction < 35%
Test reproduced sxs
Upper GI (UGI) Series is?
Fluoroscopy (real-time moving x-ray) w/ barium sulfate contrast
visualization of esophagus, stomach, start of duodenum
Esophagram/Barium Swallow is?
Like UGI but on throat and esophagus only
UGI indicated when? (5)
UGI (P) findings?
Hiatal hernia (stom above diaph)
Cancers (strictures, obstr, filling defects, tumors)
UGI for perforations, use what contrast?
UGI contraindications? (4)
Complete bowel obstruction
Suspected upper GI perforation
UGI complications? (2)
Constipation from barium
Barium Enema is?
Lower GI series:
barium w/ fluoroscopy of colon and distal small bowel
(P) alternate to colonoscopy
Barium Enema (P) therapeutic use?
reduce non-strangulated intuss
Barium Enema findings?
similar to UGI
Inflamm bowel dz (appears as narrowed colon due to swollen bowel walls)
Barium Enema contraindication? (4)
Barium Enema complications? (2)
Fecal impact from barium
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is?
Direct visual of up GI w/ fiberoptic scope
Diagnostic and therapeutic
EGD indicated when? (10)
Weight loss/Dysphagia/Early satiety
N/V abd pain
Esoph varices (swollen v.v.)
Iron def anemia
Enteropathies (e.g. celiac)
similar to UGI
EGD contraindications? (4)
Esoph diverticula (risk perf)
Recent GI surgery
EGD complications? (3)
Bleed if bx
Aspiration of gastric contents
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is?
Fiberoptic scope w/ radio dye of Bile and Pancreas
Magnetic Resonance CP is?
MR used to visual biliary tree and pancreatic ducts
ERCP indicated when?
Obstruction of bile/pancrea ducts
ERCP therapeutic uses?
ERCP contraindications? (2)
Inaccessible ampulla of Vater
ERCP complications? (4)
G- blood infect
Aspiration of gastric content
fiberoptic scope of rectum, colon, terminal ileum
Diagnostic and therapeutic
Requires bowel prep
Same as colonoscopy but limited to rectum and sigmoid
Colonoscopy indicated when? (6)
CA screen/polyp removal/Bx
Inflamm bowel dz
Abnormal BE or CT
Foreign body removal
Decompress volvulus (twisted bowel)
Colonoscopy contraindications? (5)
Recent colon surgery