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Flashcards in Exam 3: Overtraining Deck (10):
1

Overtraining - Introduction

*Basic Principle: successful training must involve some degree of ________ while avoiding excessive overload and inadequate _______.

*__________ (OR): accumulation of stress resulting in [short-term/long-term] decrements in performance.

*__________ (OT) [short-term/long-term]: accumulation of stress resulting in decrements in performance.

*OR can possibly be considered ‘________’ but OT is a very serious condition.

*Primary difference b/w OR and OT is *time for _______,* not the stress stimulus, impairment, or psychological aspects.

overload, recovery

*Overreaching
Short term --> (days to weeks)

*Overtraining
Long-term --> (weeks to months)

harmless

recovery

2

Overreaching

*Overreaching can be divided into two primary forms.
1) ________ overreaching.
2) ___-________ overreaching.

Functional
Non-functional

3

Overreaching

*Functional overreaching
-Training built around _______ overreaching for periods of time so as to induce a ‘super-compensation’ when rest and recovery is provided.
-Typical of training programs for ____ level athletes.
--Periodization

*Non-Functional Overreaching.
-________ outcome of training that oversteps the capability of the body (and mind) to overcome _________ performance reductions.
-Typical when training is quantitatively _________ to the point of producing maladaptive endocrine and/or psychological disturbances.
--Simply a case of pushing too hard.

planned

high

Unplanned
temporary

excessive

4

Overtraining Syndrome

*Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is the diagnosable outcome of overtraining.
*Linked conceptually to the famed _______ ________ _______ (___) model associated with stress responses.
-And sometimes linked to adrenal fatigue/exhaustion.

*Also known as ‘_______.’
*Ultimate outcome can be burn-out and sport _________.

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

staleness
withdrawal

5

Overtraining Syndrome (OTS) Diagnosis

*Many and varied efforts but _________ tests are not available.
*Common markers: lactate, glycogen, glutamine, cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone, performance testing (via time trials), and psychological monitoring (via POMS).
--All are OK but none are great.

*Requirements of Reliable Marker of OTS.
-________ to training load and ________ by non-training factors.
-Changes occur prior to the establishment of full-blown OTS.
-Relatively quick and _____ to measure and non-invasive.

*No currently available markers meet all criteria but many monitoring efforts are in place that have some utility.

definitive

Sensitive, unaffected

easy

6

OTS Symptomatology

-Subjective sense of ____ in muscular fitness and coordination.
-Decreased _______.
-Body weight loss.
-Muscle tenderness.
-______ disturbances.
-Intermittent nausea.
-Elevated resting _____ _____ and _____ _______ and BMR.
-Development of cold and allergic reactions.
-Clinical depression.

*Symptoms are highly _________ and ________.

loss

appetite

Sleep

heart rate, blood pressure

individualized and subjective

7

OTS Prevalence

*Present in approximately 10% within elite/high level swimmers and endurance athletes.

*Lifetime incidence of ___+% in elite athletics (especially endurance sports) and ___+% in recreational athletes.

*Recurrence rates are believed to be ___+%.

60+%

30+%

90+%

8

OTS Prevention

*Reduced risk by __________ type training that prescribe and allows for *rest between training sessions* and periodically builds in deliberate periods of full ____.

*Rest: general rule of thumb is to have ___ day of full rest with little/no activity or heavy stress of any kind.

*Sleep: recommendations focus amount of sleep needed to feel ______ upon waking and wakeful during the day.

*Nutrition: ensure energy balance and protect against ________ depletion.

periodization

rest

one

rested

glycogen

9

OTS Prevention

*Specific Recommendations For Coaches and Clinicians
-Maintain accurate _______ of training – Journals/logs
-Avoid excessive _________ of training – Variety helps!
-__________ the intensity of training – Based on tolerance.
-Encourage and reinforce efforts towards optimizing nutrition, hydration, and sleep.
-Allow ________ after illness.
-Maintain regular health/medical checks.
-__________ with the athletes about concerns of any kind.

Side note: complete list is available on page 19 of Overtraining reading.

records

monotony

Individualize

recovery

Communicate

10

OTS Treatment

*Treatment in the optimistic sense of returning the athlete to optimal performance _______ is not possible.

*Treatment involves marked reduction in training ________ and/or _______, or ideally a lengthy ____ period.

*Focus should be on ________ and early diagnosis.
--Because treatment means no competition for a long time.

quickly

intensity, volume, rest

prevention