Flashcards in Exam 3: Overtraining Deck (10):
Overtraining - Introduction
*Basic Principle: successful training must involve some degree of ________ while avoiding excessive overload and inadequate _______.
*__________ (OR): accumulation of stress resulting in [short-term/long-term] decrements in performance.
*__________ (OT) [short-term/long-term]: accumulation of stress resulting in decrements in performance.
*OR can possibly be considered ‘________’ but OT is a very serious condition.
*Primary difference b/w OR and OT is *time for _______,* not the stress stimulus, impairment, or psychological aspects.
Short term --> (days to weeks)
Long-term --> (weeks to months)
*Overreaching can be divided into two primary forms.
1) ________ overreaching.
2) ___-________ overreaching.
-Training built around _______ overreaching for periods of time so as to induce a ‘super-compensation’ when rest and recovery is provided.
-Typical of training programs for ____ level athletes.
-________ outcome of training that oversteps the capability of the body (and mind) to overcome _________ performance reductions.
-Typical when training is quantitatively _________ to the point of producing maladaptive endocrine and/or psychological disturbances.
--Simply a case of pushing too hard.
*Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is the diagnosable outcome of overtraining.
*Linked conceptually to the famed _______ ________ _______ (___) model associated with stress responses.
-And sometimes linked to adrenal fatigue/exhaustion.
*Also known as ‘_______.’
*Ultimate outcome can be burn-out and sport _________.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Overtraining Syndrome (OTS) Diagnosis
*Many and varied efforts but _________ tests are not available.
*Common markers: lactate, glycogen, glutamine, cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone, performance testing (via time trials), and psychological monitoring (via POMS).
--All are OK but none are great.
*Requirements of Reliable Marker of OTS.
-________ to training load and ________ by non-training factors.
-Changes occur prior to the establishment of full-blown OTS.
-Relatively quick and _____ to measure and non-invasive.
*No currently available markers meet all criteria but many monitoring efforts are in place that have some utility.
-Subjective sense of ____ in muscular fitness and coordination.
-Body weight loss.
-Elevated resting _____ _____ and _____ _______ and BMR.
-Development of cold and allergic reactions.
*Symptoms are highly _________ and ________.
heart rate, blood pressure
individualized and subjective
*Present in approximately 10% within elite/high level swimmers and endurance athletes.
*Lifetime incidence of ___+% in elite athletics (especially endurance sports) and ___+% in recreational athletes.
*Recurrence rates are believed to be ___+%.
*Reduced risk by __________ type training that prescribe and allows for *rest between training sessions* and periodically builds in deliberate periods of full ____.
*Rest: general rule of thumb is to have ___ day of full rest with little/no activity or heavy stress of any kind.
*Sleep: recommendations focus amount of sleep needed to feel ______ upon waking and wakeful during the day.
*Nutrition: ensure energy balance and protect against ________ depletion.
*Specific Recommendations For Coaches and Clinicians
-Maintain accurate _______ of training – Journals/logs
-Avoid excessive _________ of training – Variety helps!
-__________ the intensity of training – Based on tolerance.
-Encourage and reinforce efforts towards optimizing nutrition, hydration, and sleep.
-Allow ________ after illness.
-Maintain regular health/medical checks.
-__________ with the athletes about concerns of any kind.
Side note: complete list is available on page 19 of Overtraining reading.