Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (75):
What does the lymphatic system consist of?
T cells, B cells, lymph nodes, lymph and blood vessels, and WBCs
Define innate immunity
Natural, non-adaptive, and non-specific
What are examples of innate immunity?
1st response = physical (skin) and chemical barriers (pH)
2nd response = inflammation and phagocytosis
Define adaptive immunity
Changes depending on what it's dealing with and is acquired throughout your life; T and B cells adapt to change for different infections
What are examples of adaptive immunity?
Exposure to the disease or receiving a vaccine
What is the first line of dense?
Innate immunity via physical (skin mucous membranes, vomit, cough, urination) and chemical barriers (sweat, tears, mucus) and norma flora
What is norma flora?
A bacteria located in the GI tract that is good and helpful to the body
What is the second line of defense?
Innate immunity via inflammation and phagocytosis
What occurs as a result of inflammation?
Vasodilation, increased permeability, slow down blood flow, and increased clotting; complement system is activated
What occurs as a result of phagocytosis?
Neutrophils (1st responders) eat foreign objects (cell walls, flagella, pili, mostly bacteria); macrophages are activated
What is the complement system?
Direct or indirect destruction of cells by plasma proteins produced in the liver; activated macrophage attack complex (MAC)
What occurs in the complement system?
Opsonization, chemotaxis, and anaphylaxis
A marker is placed on bacteria to flag down macrophages to come and kill it
Movement of WBC from the bone marrow to the site of infection
What is MAC?
Plasma proteins C5b-C9 from the complement system form holes in the cell which lyses the cell through influx of extracellular fluids
What is the third line of defense?
Specific and adaptive using cell-mediated lymphocytes and antibody-mediated (humoral) B cells and T cells
Where do the B cells come from?
What is the function of B cells?
To make antibodies
Where do T cells come from?
Bone marrow, but are then moved to the Thymus where they mature
Which cells are involved in the immune response?
Antigen presenting cells (APCs), T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells, B cells, and natural killer cells
What are the two types of APCs?
MHC I and MCH II
What are MHC I used for?
Any cell virally infected or cancer cells
What do MHC I do?
Put CD8 receptor on surface of infected cell and Cytotoxic T cell reads it
What are MHC II used for?
What do MHC II do?
Eat bacteria and present CD4 receptor on the outside of the cell and Helper T cell reads it
What do the three types of Helper T cells do?
HT1 = activate more; divide
HT2 = go to B cells; find antibody turns into plasma cell
Memory T cells = remember macrophages and B cells for increased second response
What do natural killer cells do?
Look for cells that lack MHC molecules and trigger the cell for apoptosis
What is an antigen?
Something that can bind to an antibody and create an immune response
What is the variable part on an antibody that binds to the antigen?
What is the constant portion of an antibody?
Which antibody is the first on the scene?
Which antibody is the second on the scene and increases in case of a second exposure?
Flagging for destruction
Auto-, allo-, or heterophile cell markers
Phagocyte; poor antigen presenter
Phagocyte; professional antigen presenter
Define Th lymphocyte
Signaled by macrophages; signal Tc and B cells
Define Tc lymphocyte
Target virally-infected cells
Define plasma cell
A specific immunity blood cell
Define IgG antibody
Prominent in secondary immune response
Define IgA antibody
Present in secretions
How does Chlamydia reproduce?
Has to be inside the cell
What is an elementary body?
Attach to the cell
What is an reticular body?
Inside the cell and infects it
What do we test for?
Elementary bodies - antibodies will attach to them if present
What happens in direct fluorescent?
Glow greens when attached to elementary body
What happens in direct ELISA?
"Antigen sandwich"; antigens attach to antibodies then another antibody attaches to the antigen and an enzyme will attach to the other antibody. Place a substrate for enzyme and it will change color
What happens in indirect ELISA?
In the serology test, the fluorescence is found on what?
What would most likely happen if you forgot to fix the samples to the slide?
Test negatie due to washing steps removing samples
Which sample showed residual non-specific binding after the washing steps?
Which pt samples contained Chlamydia-specific antigen?
How is Chlamydia transmission prevented?
Abstinence, faithfulness, and mutual monogamy
What is the source of the pt sample?
What is an epitope?
Specific part of the antigen that the antibody binds to
What antigen is a home pregnancy test testing for?
Which tests positive pt sample contains antibodies specific to antigen of interest?
True indirect ELISA
Which part of the antibody do antigens bind to?
Fab the variable site
What test tests positive with indirect ELISA?
What is the key substance in developing a buffer?
Enzyme linked to secondary antibody
What are antibodies made out of?
Describe the binding site of a secondary antibody
Constant region of a primary antibody
What does a positive result for HIV in indirect ELISA contain?
Antibodies against HIV
Which pt needs to be re-tested?
The immune system reacting to things you wish they didn't
What type of hypersensitivity is immediate and reacts with allergies and resounds to something foreign with symptoms like: asthma, anaphylactic shock, diarrhea, etc
Which type of antibodies are stimulated with Type 1 hypersensitivity?
Mast cell-bound IgE (varies in intensity)
What type of hypersensitivity is tissue-specific and reacts with blood transfusions, Rh, and autoimmunity?
What type of antibodies are stimulated with type 2 hypersensitivity?
Free antibodies IgG or IgM
What type of hypersensitivity is immune complex and reacts with Lupus, RA, PG, glomerulonephritis?