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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (75):
1

What does the lymphatic system consist of?

T cells, B cells, lymph nodes, lymph and blood vessels, and WBCs

2

Define innate immunity

Natural, non-adaptive, and non-specific

3

What are examples of innate immunity?

1st response = physical (skin) and chemical barriers (pH)
2nd response = inflammation and phagocytosis

4

Define adaptive immunity

Changes depending on what it's dealing with and is acquired throughout your life; T and B cells adapt to change for different infections

5

What are examples of adaptive immunity?

Exposure to the disease or receiving a vaccine

6

What is the first line of dense?

Innate immunity via physical (skin mucous membranes, vomit, cough, urination) and chemical barriers (sweat, tears, mucus) and norma flora

7

What is norma flora?

A bacteria located in the GI tract that is good and helpful to the body

8

What is the second line of defense?

Innate immunity via inflammation and phagocytosis

9

What occurs as a result of inflammation?

Vasodilation, increased permeability, slow down blood flow, and increased clotting; complement system is activated

10

What occurs as a result of phagocytosis?

Neutrophils (1st responders) eat foreign objects (cell walls, flagella, pili, mostly bacteria); macrophages are activated

11

What is the complement system?

Direct or indirect destruction of cells by plasma proteins produced in the liver; activated macrophage attack complex (MAC)

12

What occurs in the complement system?

Opsonization, chemotaxis, and anaphylaxis

13

Define opsonization

A marker is placed on bacteria to flag down macrophages to come and kill it

14

Define chemotaxis

Movement of WBC from the bone marrow to the site of infection

15

Define anaphylaxis

Wide spread

16

What is MAC?

Plasma proteins C5b-C9 from the complement system form holes in the cell which lyses the cell through influx of extracellular fluids

17

What is the third line of defense?

Specific and adaptive using cell-mediated lymphocytes and antibody-mediated (humoral) B cells and T cells

18

Where do the B cells come from?

Bone marrow

19

What is the function of B cells?

To make antibodies

20

Where do T cells come from?

Bone marrow, but are then moved to the Thymus where they mature

21

Which cells are involved in the immune response?

Antigen presenting cells (APCs), T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells, B cells, and natural killer cells

22

What are the two types of APCs?

MHC I and MCH II

23

What are MHC I used for?

Any cell virally infected or cancer cells

24

What do MHC I do?

Put CD8 receptor on surface of infected cell and Cytotoxic T cell reads it

25

What are MHC II used for?

Professional macrophages

26

What do MHC II do?

Eat bacteria and present CD4 receptor on the outside of the cell and Helper T cell reads it

27

What do the three types of Helper T cells do?

HT1 = activate more; divide
HT2 = go to B cells; find antibody turns into plasma cell
Memory T cells = remember macrophages and B cells for increased second response

28

What do natural killer cells do?

Look for cells that lack MHC molecules and trigger the cell for apoptosis

29

What is an antigen?

Something that can bind to an antibody and create an immune response

30

What is the variable part on an antibody that binds to the antigen?

Fab

31

What is the constant portion of an antibody?

Fc

32

Which antibody is the first on the scene?

IgM

33

Which antibody is the second on the scene and increases in case of a second exposure?

IgG

34

Define opsonization

Flagging for destruction

35

Define antigen

Auto-, allo-, or heterophile cell markers

36

Define neutrophil

Phagocyte; poor antigen presenter

37

Define macrophage

Phagocyte; professional antigen presenter

38

Define autoimmunity

Targeted self-antigens

39

Define pathogen

Disease-causing microorganism

40

Define Th lymphocyte

Signaled by macrophages; signal Tc and B cells

41

Define Tc lymphocyte

Target virally-infected cells

42

Define plasma cell

A specific immunity blood cell

43

Define IgG antibody

Prominent in secondary immune response

44

Define cytokines

Cellular communication

45

Define IgA antibody

Present in secretions

46

How does Chlamydia reproduce?

Has to be inside the cell

47

What is an elementary body?

Attach to the cell

48

What is an reticular body?

Inside the cell and infects it

49

What do we test for?

Elementary bodies - antibodies will attach to them if present

50

What happens in direct fluorescent?

Glow greens when attached to elementary body

51

What happens in direct ELISA?

"Antigen sandwich"; antigens attach to antibodies then another antibody attaches to the antigen and an enzyme will attach to the other antibody. Place a substrate for enzyme and it will change color

52

What happens in indirect ELISA?

?

53

In the serology test, the fluorescence is found on what?

Antibody

54

What would most likely happen if you forgot to fix the samples to the slide?

Test negatie due to washing steps removing samples

55

Which sample showed residual non-specific binding after the washing steps?

Pt C

56

Which pt samples contained Chlamydia-specific antigen?

Pt B

57

How is Chlamydia transmission prevented?

Abstinence, faithfulness, and mutual monogamy

58

What is the source of the pt sample?

Epithelial scrapings

59

What is an epitope?

Specific part of the antigen that the antibody binds to

60

What antigen is a home pregnancy test testing for?

HCG

61

Which tests positive pt sample contains antibodies specific to antigen of interest?

True indirect ELISA

62

Which part of the antibody do antigens bind to?

Fab the variable site

63

What test tests positive with indirect ELISA?

Seroconversion

64

What is the key substance in developing a buffer?

Enzyme linked to secondary antibody

65

What are antibodies made out of?

Protein

66

Describe the binding site of a secondary antibody

Constant region of a primary antibody

67

What does a positive result for HIV in indirect ELISA contain?

Antibodies against HIV

68

Which pt needs to be re-tested?

Pt B

69

Define hypersensitivity

The immune system reacting to things you wish they didn't

70

What type of hypersensitivity is immediate and reacts with allergies and resounds to something foreign with symptoms like: asthma, anaphylactic shock, diarrhea, etc

Type 1

71

Which type of antibodies are stimulated with Type 1 hypersensitivity?

Mast cell-bound IgE (varies in intensity)

72

What type of hypersensitivity is tissue-specific and reacts with blood transfusions, Rh, and autoimmunity?

Type 2

73

What type of antibodies are stimulated with type 2 hypersensitivity?

Free antibodies IgG or IgM

74

What type of hypersensitivity is immune complex and reacts with Lupus, RA, PG, glomerulonephritis?

Type 3

75

What type of hypersensitivity is delayed, cell-mediated, and contact and reacts with Topical hapten protein?

Type 4