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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (134)
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effect of an individual IV alone (potential for one for each IV); looking at different of each level of one IV, ignoring other IV; effect of an individual IV alone (for one IV, the levels of IV differ)

main effect


effect of IV differs at different levels of another IV; effect of an IV differs at different levels of another IV (effect we see in one IV depend on what’s going on in a different IV)



effect of an IV differs at just one level of a second IV; can make interpreting a main effect misleading; often uninterpretable / difficult to interpret; still find an interaction and main effect, but is a simple main effect; effect of an IV differs at just one level of a 2nd Ievel can make interpreting a main effect misleading (i.e.: men have higher scores than women in treatment condition, but nothing is different in control condution)

simple main effect


an IV whose levels are not tested on each participant

independent factor


an IV whose levels are tested on each participant

repeated factor


IVs where some are tested on each participant and some are not

mixed factors


performance on DV reaches a maximum; one IV group all does relatively same on high end

ceiling effect


performance on DV reaches a minimum; one IV doe relatively same on low end

floor effect


the study of behavior and mental processes across the lifespan using a scientific approach



defined by empiricism and appropriate skepticism; produces facts



an abstract concept that refers to ways in which questions are asked and the logic and methods used to gain answers; used by psychologists with empiricism and skepticism

scientific method


claims based on evidence and evidence derived from observation and experimentation / emphasizes direct observation and experimentation as a way of answering questions; the most important characteristic of the scientific method; using this, psychologists focused on behaviors and experiences that could be observed directly

empiricism / empirical approach


skeptical of all types of claims, especially personal anecdotes, experiences, and/or gut intuitions (but not to the point of ignoring when evidence converges)

"appropriate" skepticism


the spirit of the times; the trend of the time; reflects how people are thinking; attitude toward different things



Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic countries; where most of the participants in psychological research come from; this skews research findings, and therefore, we need to be cautious about our interpretations of findings



can occur when researchers fail to recognize when experiences and values of their own culture affect their interpretations of behavior observed in other cultures (eg: research involving Americans applied to other cultures leads to potential of this)

ethnocentric bias


our natural tendency to seek evidence that's consistent with our intuitions and ignore or deny contradictory evidence; selectively accepting evidence that confirms an already held belief and dismissing evidence that counters that belief; must try to disprove "facts," which is where the null hypothesis comes in; influences the choices people make and motivates them to avoid info that challenges them, even when doing so causes them to be wrong

confirmation bias


a concept or idea (intelligence, memory, depression, aggression, etc.); given meaning through an OD



explains a concept solely in terms of the observable procedures used to produce and measure it; facilitates communication

operational definition


tentative explanation for a phenomenon; often stated in form of a prediction for some outcome along with an explanation for the prediction
(starts with a grasp of the existing research; offers a relationship between variables; must be testable/constructs adequately defined; is not circular; is falsifiable / ideas are recognized by science)

hypothesis (and what makes a good hypothesis)


points to same or similar conclusion ?

converging evidence


reviews psychological research to protect the rights and welfare of human participants; ensures that researchers protect participants from harm and safeguard participants' rights; must be composed of at least 5 members with varying backgrounds and fields of expertise, both scientists and nonscientists must be represented, and there must be at least 1 member who isn't affiliated with the institution; has the authority to approve/disprove/require modification of the research plan prior to its approval of the research; has the ethical responsibility to review research proposals fairly by considering the perspectives of researchers, institution, and participants; is sponsored by the institution

Institutional Review Board (IRB)


asks "Is it worth it?"; IRB members rely on a subjective evaluation of the first and the second both to individual participants and to society and ask "Are the greater than the ?"; research is approved when the second outweighs the first

risk / benefit ratio


harm/discomfort participants may experience is not greater than what they may experience in their daily lives / during routine physical or psychological tests;

minimal risk


a person's explicitly expressed willingness to participate in a research project based on a clear understanding of the nature of the research, of the consequences for not participating, and of all factors that might be expected to influence that person's willingness to participate; 1) there must be a reasonable effort to respond to questions about research, 2) the dignity of participants must be respected, and 3) individuals have to be allowed to withdraw at any time

informed consent


expressed willingness to participate; must be obtained from participants themselves whenever possible; this is especially important in studies dealing with vulnerable populations



can occur through omission or commission; considered by some to be completely unethical bc it hurts the relationship between the researcher and the participant, may hurt the perception of psychology as a whole, and hurts society bc it leads to distrust of experts; others suggest it is a "technical illusion" that should be permitted in the interest of scientific inquiry and that psychologists should be allowed to suspend the moral principle in interest of science, especially in order to obtain information that would be impossible to get otherwise



necessary to explain to participants the need for deception, to address any misconceptions they may have had about their participation, and to remove harmful effects resulting from the deception; also has the important goals of educating participants about the research (rationale, method, results) and of leaving them with positive feelings about their participation; provides opportunity for participant to learn about their specific performance, helps researchers to learn how participants viewed the study, and enables researchers to identify any problems in procedures and provide ideas for future research



submitted manuscripts are reviewed by other researchers who are experts in the specific field of research addressed in the paper under review; these reviewers decide whether the research is methodologically sound and whether it makes a substantive contribution to the discipline of psychology; these reviews are then submitted to a senior researcher who serves as editor of the journal; editor decides which papers warrant publication; the primary method of quality control for published psychological research

peer review process


alphanumeric string that identifies the content and electronic location of an article or other information source found on the internet; is usually found on the title page of a published article; should be included in references whenever is available

digital object identifier (DOI)