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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (84):
1

The 4 articulations of the shoulder girdle

Sternoclavicular
Acromioclavicular
Coracoclavicular
Scapulothoracic

2

Scapular rotation to facilitate shoulder abduction
-1st 30degrees of abduction=little scapular rotation
-Beyond 30degrees= for every 2 degrees of shoulder movement scapular rotates 1 degree
-2:1 ratio

Scapulohumeral rhythm

3

T/F
Supporting structure for shoulder
-Glenoid fossa
- Glenoid labrum
-Coracohumeral ligament
-Glenohumeral ligament

True

4

Glenoid labrum:
-Increases width and _______ of fossa
-Assists in holding the _________ in place

Depth
Humerus

5

Stabilizes the humerus against superior and lateral displacement

Coracohumeral ligament

6

Glenohumeral ligament:
- __________ the humerus against _________ displacement
1. Superior
2. Middle
3. Inferior

Stabilizes
Anterior

7

T/F
Shoulder Functions
Great degree mobility w/ limited stability

True

8

Round Humeral head that articulates w/ a flat glenoid

Shoulder Function

9

Rotator _____ & long head of the ________ provide dynamic stability

Cuff
Biceps

10

_______________ compress the head while the other rotator cuff muscles depress the __________ head during overhead motion

Supraspinatus
Humeral

11

Integration of the capsule and rotator cuff
- Muscle _____________ dynamically control the capsule

Contractions

12

Humerus Fracture MOI

Direct blow
FOOSH
Dislocations
Spiral

13

Overhead throwing

Rotator cuff MOI

14

Sternoclavicular sprains MOI:
Direct blow, _________ of extended arm

Torsion

15

Acromioclavicular Sprain MOI

Direct blow, FOOSH

16

Rotator Cuff Impingement MOI:
____________ overhead activities
Supraspinatus ________
Subacromial bursa
Long head of _______ tendon

Repetitive
Tendon
Biceps

17

The purpose of the radial(lateral) and ulnar(medial) collateral ligaments

Provide support for the sides of the joint

18

Valgus stress is an abnormal __________ turning of a bone
Ex. Abduction

Outward

19

An abnormal inward turning of a bone
Ex. Adduction

Varus Stress

20

T/F
Ulnar collateral ligament resists valgus torques

True

21

Radial collateral ligament resist ______ torques

Varus

22

In an anatomical position, it is common for the forearm to deviate laterally from arm 5-15 degrees

Carrying Angle

23

Lateral epicondylitis is another term for

Tennis elbow

24

Lateral epicondylitis MOI
Repetitive micro trauma to ___________ of wrist _________ muscles

Insertion
Extensor

25

T/F
Medial Epicondylitis is another term for golfers elbow

True

26

Repeated forceful wrist flexion and extreme valgus torque on the elbow

Medial epicondylitis MOI

27

Little league elbow MOI
_______________ micro traumas that occur from ___________ motion- not due to pitch type

Repetitive
Throwing

28

Olecranon on Bursitis MOI

Acute or chronic pressure to the olecranon area
(Military, carpenters, carpet installers,etc, who lay on elbow)

29

Ulnar Collateral ligament MOI
_______ stress( late cocking and early acceleration phases of throwing, forehand in tennis)
Due from ___________ trauma

Valgus
Repetitive

30

Elbow dislocation MOI
FOOSH or severe _______ while elbows in a _________ position

Twist
Flexed

31

Elbow fracture MOI
FOOSH or direct ______
More likely to happen in ___________ and adolescents than adults

Blow
Children

32

The 3 main prevention techniques for the hand

Strength
Treatment
Recognition

33

T/F
Colles fracture(outward)- FOOSH

True

34

Triangular fibrocartilage complex injury MOI
Violent twist or ________ of the wrist
FOOSH/ _______________

Torque
Hyperextension

35

De quervains disease MOI

Repetitive wrist motions

36

Carpal tunnel syndrome MOI

Repeated wrist flexion, trauma

37

Boxers fracture MOI
5th ___________ fracture
Direct or _____________ force

Metacarpal
Compressive

38

Scaphoid Fracture MOI

FOOSH
Poor blood supply(necrosis)

39

Hamate Fracture MOI
Fall
________ while holding sports implement
_____ stress fracture
Digiti _______ muscles

Contact
Hook
Minimi

40

Mallet finger MOI
Object strikes _____ of finger
_________ of extensor tensor

Tip
Avulsion

41

Jersey Finger MOI

Jersey grab
Ruptures or avulses FDP

42

2 structures of intervetebral disks

Annulus fibrosis
Nucleus pulposus

43

Prevention of spinal injuries??

Stability
Mobility
Assessment

44

Cervical fracture MOI
______ loading
Head-to-head ________
Hyperextension

Axial
Contact

45

Whiplash MOI
Sudden ______ of the ______
Possible __________ tears
Car accidents

Snap
Head
Ligament

46

Low back pain(LBM) MOI

Overuse that produces strains and/ or sprains

47

Lumbar fractures/ dislocations MOI
Compression
________________ of trunk
Falling from ________

Hyper flexion
Heights

48

Sciatica MOI

Disk protection
Structural irregularities
Piriformis syndrome

49

Disc herniation MOI

Forward bending and twisting
Sports

50

Spondylolysis MOI
-Pars interarticularis
- Region between the _________ and inferior articulation facets of a vertebra
-Degeneration and _______ fracture will occur
-Slipping=spondylolisthesis= a ____________ of the spondylolysis that results in hypermobility of a vertebra

Superior
Stress
Complication

51

Mild traumatic brain injury that alters the way the brain functions

Concussion

52

Signs and symptoms of concussion

Headache
Dizziness
Disorientation
Confusion
Loss of consciousness
Nausea
Vomiting
Amnesia
Seizure
And more

53

Diagnosing a concussion

Make it standardized
Objective and measurable
History
Symptom checklist
Cognitive testing
Balance testing
Eye exam

54

Managing a concussion

No same day return with suspected concussion
Acute management- determine need for referral
Bottom line- refer if symptoms are deteriorating

55

Skull fractures MOI

Blunt trauma
Fall from height

56

Mandible Fracture MOI
Direct blow to the lower ____ or mandible

Jaw

57

Mandible luxation MOI

Side blow to open mouth

58

TMJ pain MOI
Clenching of _______, contraction of jaw muscles
-most commonly at night

Teeth

59

Epistaxis MOI
Direct blow to the ______
_______ infection
Humidity
______ injury
Allergies

Nose
Sinus
Head

60

Orbital fracture MOI

Blow to the eye causing blowout fracture of the orbital bone

61

Tooth fracture MOI
Impact to the upper or lower ______
Uncomplicated fx- no blood
Complicated fx- bleeding
root fx- below gum line

Jaw

62

Quadrants of abdomen

RUQ
RLQ
LUQ
LLQ

63

Rib contusion MOI

Direct blow

64

Flail chest MOI
Direct blow or ___________(not very common; FB, wrestling)

Compression

65

Costochondral seperation MOI

Direct blow
Sudden twist
Compression

66

Sternum Fracture MOI
Result of high _______ blow to the _______(car accident)
May also cause __________ to underlying cardiac muscles

Impact
Chest
Contusion

67

The 3 lung pathologies

Pneumothorax
Tension pneumothorax
Hemothorax

68

Pneumothorax

Pleural cavity fills with air(collapsed lung)

69

Tension pneumothorax

Pleural cavity fills with air, displacing heart, compressing opposite lung

70

Hemothorax

Pleural cavity fills with blood

71

Lung pathologies MOI

Gunshot/ knife wound
Rib fracture

72

Commotio cordis MOI

Direct blow during depolarization

73

The 3 types of sudden death syndrome

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Coronary artery anomalies
Marfans syndrome

74

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: ______________ of cardiac muscles with no increase in chamber size

Thickening

75

T/F
Coronary artery anomalies is when artery could be compromised or obstructed

True

76

Tissue abnormalities that result in weakened aorta and valves

Marfans syndrome

77

Kidney contusion MOI

Direct blow to low back

78

Bladder contusion MOI

Direct blow when bladder is distended

79

Direct blow
People with hepatitis are predisposed

Liver contusion

80

Spleen injury MOI

Direct blow to LUQ
Enlarged

81

Hernia: protrusion of ___________ viscera through a portion of the abdominal wall
(Can be congenital or acquired)

Abdominal

82

Hernia MOI

Strain or direct blow
Increase in inter-abdominal pressure

83

3 types of hernias

I GUI also
Femoral
Strangulated hernia

84

Solar plexus injury MOI

Direct MOI