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Flashcards in exam 4 Deck (193):
1

infection

caused by a microorganism

2

exposure incubation stage

no symptoms

3

exposure prodromal stage

vague sense of not being well

4

exposure invasive stage

full blown illness

5

exposure acme stage

peak of illness

6

exposure decline stage

symptoms under control

7

exposure convalescent stage

body repairing

8

exposure sequelae stage

remaining symptoms body doesn't repair

9

chain of infection

infectious agent passes from one organism to another

10

pathogen

infectious agent capable of causing disease

11

vector

animal/insect that transmits pathogen to new host

12

reservoir

community of pathogens

13

virulence

speed/intensity with which a pathogen is likely to cause an infection

14

epidemic

widespread outbreak

15

chain of infection six step

host
infectious agent
receiver
portal of exit
transportation
portal of entry

16

virus

genome and protein covering

17

bacteria

single celled organisms

spherical, rodlike, or spiral

18

prions

entirely of protein

19

fungi

single celled or multi celled

20

helminths

worms

21

protozoa

single celled
live independently

22

ectoparasites

complex organisms
live on host skin

23

immune system

complex set of cells, chemicals, and processes that protects the body against pathogens

24

innate immune system

dispose of pathogens in nonspecific manner

25

acute inflammatory response

body’s initial reaction to tissue damage, bringing blood to the site of injury or infection

26

acquired immune system

develops as you are exposed

27

lymphocytes

white blood cells that circulate in the bloodstream and lymphatic system (security guards)

28

antigen

marker on surface of a foreign substance

29

T cell

monitor events inside cell

30

helper t cell

read infection messages
trigger killer and B cells

31

killer t cell

kill infected cells

32

suppressor t cell

slow down immune system when healed

33

b cells

monitor blood and tissue fluids

34

antibodies

proteins that bind to antigens
trigger destruction

35

what to t and b cells become

memory cells

36

vaccine

weakened or killed disease to promote immunity

37

passive immunity

temporart immunity
from antibodies in pregnancy and breastfeeding

38

autoimmune disease

immune system creates immune response to part of body

39

allergies

body identifies harmless substance as antigen
creates immune response

40

anaphylactic shock

life threatening allergic response

41

how many organisms associated with food related illness

250

42

antibiotic

killing or preventing growth of bacteria

43

antibiotic resistance

lessened sensitivity to effects of antibiotic

44

four leading causes of disease mortality

pneumonia
diarrhea
tuberculosis
malaria

45

latent infection

not currently active
could reactivate

46

cardiovascular disease

involves heart or blood vessels

47

what is the leading cause of death in US

cardiovascular disease

48

how many deaths does cardiovascular disease account for

1 in 3

49

cardiovascular system

heart and blood vessels that circulate blood throughout the body

50

Pulmonary lung circulation

pumping oxygen poor blood to the lungs and oxygen rich blood back to the heart
right side of the heart

51

systemic body circulation

pumping oxygen rich blood to the body and oxygen poor blood back to the heart
left side of the heart

52

aorta

largest artery

53

does the aorta carry oxygen rich or poor blood

rich

54

inferior and superior vena cava

largest veins

55

does the inferior and superior vena cava carry oxygen rich or poor blood

poor

56

coronary arteries

medium sized arteries

57

do the coronary arteries carry oxygen rich or poor blood

rich

58

sinoatrial node

group of cells in the right atrium
electrical signal is generated; establishes heartbeat

59

Atherosclerosis

thickening or hardening of the arteries due to buildup of fats and other substances

60

fatty streak

accumulation of lipoproteins

61

lipoproteins

proteins, phospholipids and cholesterol

62

plaque

accumulation of debris

63

coronary heart disease

atherosclerosis of coronary arteries
may result in heart attack

64

what is the leading from of cardiovascular disease

coronary heart disease

65

how many americans live with coronary heart disease

15.5 million

66

ischemia

nsufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients to tissue

67

what causes ischemia

narrowed/ blocked arteries

68

myocardial infarction

lack of blood flow to the heart muscle
heart attack

69

coronary thrombosis

blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot

70

angina

pain, pressure, heaviness, or tightness in the center of the chest

71

what causes angina

narrowed coronary artery

72

arrhythmia

irregular heartbeat

73

normal heartbeats per minute

60-100

74

sudden cardiac death

loss of heart function

75

cause of sudden cardiac death

irregular or ineffective heartbeat

76

ventricular fibrillation

type of arrhythmia
ventricles contract rapidly
heart quivers instead of beating

77

stroke

blood flow to brain is blocked

78

4th leading cause of death in US

stroke

79

ischemic stroke

cause by blockage in blood vessel in brain

80

what percent of strokes are ischemic

87

81

thrombus

blood clot in narrowed artery

82

embolism

blood clot elsewhere that travels to brain

83

hemorrhagic stroke

bleeding brain tissue

84

transient ischemic attacks

ministrokes

85

subarachnoid hemorrhage

bleed into space between brain and skull

86

intacerebral hemorrhage

bleed from blood vessel into brain

87

embolic stroke

blood clots that travel to brain blood vessels

88

thrombotic stroke

blood clots that form where artery is narrowed

89

congestive heart failure

heart not pumping the blood as well as it should
blood and fluids back up in the lungs

90

heart valve disorders

one of four heart valves does not open well or close tightly

91

congenital heart disease

at birth

92

peripheral vascular disease

atherosclerosis in arms and legs

93

cardiomyopathy

disease of heart muscle

94

dilated cardiomyopathy

enlargement of heart;
weakening of muscle

95

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

thickening of one part of heart

96

where is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy most common

left ventricle

97

three measurable health factors

blood pressure
blood glucose
cholesterol

98

blood pressure

exerted by blood against artery wall

99

systolic blood pressure

pressure when beating
top number

100

diastolic blood pressure

pressure in arteries between beating
bottom number

101

hypertension

high blood pressure

102

how much more likely are people with diabetes to get cardiovascular disease

2-4

103

LDL

bad

104

HDL

good

105

triglycerides

blood fats

106

Electrocardiogram

detect abnormal rhythms, inadequate blood flow, heart enlargement

107

Echocardiogram

heart structure and motion

108

diabetes

production of insulin is disrupted

109

how often was diabetes doubled

15 years

110

type one diabetes

no signal sent

111

type two diabetes

cells resistant to insulin

112

how common is gestational diabetes

2-10% of pregnancies

113

how many cases of gestational diabetes is ongoing

5-10%

114

3rd leading cause of death

chronic lung disease

115

asthma

inflammation, obstruction, and contraction of airways

116

Bronchodilators

quick relief medications of asthma

117

COPD

damage to airways and alveoli

118

Chronic bronchitis

constant inflammation of bronchioles; excess mucus

119

Emphysema

alveoli less elastic; walls between alveoli are damaged

120

cancer

uncontrolled growth of cells

121

Clonal growth

replication of a single cell that produces thousands of copies of itself uncontrollably

122

stem cells

undifferentiated cells

123

carcinogen

cancer causing substance

124

oncogene

drives a cell to grow and divide

125

tumor

mass of extra tissues

126

benign tumor

slow growth

127

malignant

likely to spread

128

metastasis

cancer spread to other parts of body

129

localized cancer

still in primary site

130

invasive cancer

metastasized

131

stage 0 cancer

in layer of cells where it began

132

stage 1 cancer

small and localized

133

stage 2 and 3 cancer

locally advanced
may involve lymph nodes

134

stage 4

metastasized

135

carcinomas

epithelial tissue

136

epithelial tissue

skin
lining of intestines and body cavities
surface of body organs

137

sarcomas

connective tissue

138

connective tissue

bone
tendon
cartilage
muscle
fat

139

leukemias

cancer of blood
bone marrow

140

lymphomas

lymph noes or glands

141

screening tests

large group of people to identify a smaller group who are at higher risk

142

Bronchoscopy

examine lung tissue

143

unintentional injuries

not purposeful

144

defensive driving

anticipating hazards

145

three types of driver distraction

visual
manual
cognitive

146

percent of deaths that occur when pedestrians cross the street

45

147

percent of disabling injuries that occur in home

40

148

percent of work injuries that occur in back

24

149

percent that seatbelts reduce risk of death

47

150

how many people drown everyday

10

151

percent of victims in rape that are men

1-2

152

percent of assault victims that get an STD

4-30

153

percent of college women that experience violent dating

43

154

percent of women that report physical abuse

22

155

violence

force or threat to inflict injury

156

assault

attack on a person using threat or force

157

aggravated assault

with weapon and causes injury

158

simple assault

no injury

159

clery act

colleges must disclose crime

160

sexual assault

forced sexual behavior

161

sexual coercion

persuaded sexual activity

162

statutory rape

under age of consent

163

red zone

female risks at greatest risk of sexual assault

164

desensitization

repeated exposure of violent acts

165

complementary medicine

group of practices used with conventional medicine

166

alternative medicine

alternative to conventional medicine

167

integrative medicine

conventional and complementary

168

conventional medicine

western medicine

169

two types of mind and body interventions

mind body
energy

170

how long has chinese medicine been used

3,000 years

171

three aspects of chinese medicine

physical
mental
spitirual

172

what is believed to be disturbed in chinese medicine

gi
energy force

173

two parts of homeopathy

law of similar
principle of minimal dose

174

law of similar

substance that causes disease in a healthy person can cure sick

175

principle of minimal dose

encourage body to heal itself
smallest dose possible

176

naturopathy

body can heal itself

177

where does US rank in life expectancy

17

178

environmental health

interaction of humans with environment

179

air pollution

one or more chemicals in atmosphere

180

air quality index of 100

unhealthy for sensitive groups

181

air quality index of 300

hazardous for all

182

smog

mixture of pollutants that makes air hazy

183

industrial smog

cold weather
burning of coal and oil

184

photochemical smog

summer
fossil fuels

185

percent of life spent indoors

80-90

186

how many times higher are air pollutants inside

2-5 times

187

best humidity for home

30-50

188

how much waste do we recycle

35

189

percent of energy thats nonrenewable

93

190

how many people are living in poverty

1.4 million

191

earths capacity

50 million

192

clean air act

set emission standards

193

clear skies initiative

mandatory caps to reduce emissions