Exam 4-7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4-7 Deck (25):
1

Saturated Fats

Types of lipids that have a hydrogen atom attached to every chemical bond and, therefore, do not have a double bond in their chemical composition. Saturated fats tend to be solid at room temperature and a major source is animal products

2

Trans Fats

Hydrogenated vegetable oils are unsaturated fats that have been converted to saturated fats by adding hydrogen
Believed to cause heart disease.

3

Triglycerides

Lipids containing a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid chains; chemical form in which most fats exist in food and in the body (p. 46).

4

Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs)

Fatty acids that have two carbons in the chain bound to each other with one double bond; these types of fatty acids are generally liquid at room temperature. Olive oil, canola oil, cashew nuts

5

Polyunsaturated Fatty acids (PUFAs)

Fatty acid with more than one double bond (or many carbons not bonded to a hydrogen atom) Least amount of hydrogen CottonSeed, corn oil, canola, walnuts

6

Essential Fatty Acids

Fats needed by the body that must be consumed in the diet because the human body cannot manufacture them

7

Eicosanoids

Derived from arachidonic acid (a 20 carbon fatty acid); controls several body systems and functions in immunity, inflammation, and serves as messengers in the CNS

8

Linoleic acid

An essential fatty acid not made in the body but which is essential for growth and healthy skin. Also known as omega-6 fatty acid. Found in vegies and nut oil

9

Arachidonic acid

An omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid w/20 carbons and 4 double bonds, formed from linoleic acid and is used to make compounds that regulate body functions such as blood clotting and blood pressure

10

Alpha-linolenic acid

An essential fatty acid found in leafy green vegetables, flaxseed oil, soy oil, fish oil, and fish products; an omega-3 fatty acid.

11

Phospholipids

A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.

12

Sterols

Lipids that are composed of three six carbon rings and one five carbon ring fused together forming the basic structure for cholesterol, bile salts and many hormones such as cortisols, estrogens, androgens, and progesterones

13

Lipolysis

Breakdown of triglycerides

14

Fatty acid oxidation

...2-carbon fragments split off from fatty acid and combine with a molecule of CoA, making acetyl CoA. As each fragment splits off, hydrogens and their electrons go with coenzymes to the electron transport chain. This occurs in the mitochondria of cells.

15

Kreb's cycle

In all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy

16

Coronary Heart Disease

Clogging of vessels that nourish the heart muscle; leading cause of death in many developed countries; can be caused by hypertension, smoking, obesity, family history, hi-fat diet, physical inactivity, elevated cholesterol level and stress.

17

Atherosclerosis

A stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls

18

Ischemia

To hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel

19

Angina

A heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart

20

Myocardial infarction

Destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle

21

Modifiable heart disease

Sodium intake, cigarette smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol consumption, dietary intake of potassium, calcium and magnesium

22

Non-modifiable heart disease

Family History Age Gender (M>F)
Etiology of atherosclerosis

23

HDL

A lipoprotein that transports cholesterol in the blood
composed of a high proportion of protein and relatively little cholesterol; high levels are thought to be associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis

24

LDL

A lipoprotein that transports cholesterol in the blood
composed of moderate amount of protein and a large amount of cholesterol; high levels are thought to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis

25

Hypertension

A common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)