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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (158):
1

Gram for gram, which provides the most energy?

Fats

2

Which of the following contain no calories?

Vitamins

3

To celebrate her recent weight loss, Lisa’s friends decide to take her out for a healthy dinner. Lisa doesn’t drink alcohol because she knows the empty calories will contribute to weight gain. One girlfriend at the dinner has four margaritas and an extra shot of tequila before the food arrives. Is this friend’s behavior considered binge drinking?

Yes, because consuming four drinks or more for women is considered binge drinking, and she had 5.

4

Which of the following nutrients can directly supply energy for human use?

Lipids and oils

5

Which of the following includes all energy-yielding substances?

Alcohol, carbohydrates, lipids, protein

6

To help pay for her college education, Lisa recently began working part-time at a local vitamin shop. She has noticed there is an entire section devoted to phytochemicals. Which statement about phytochemicals is correct?

Phytochemicals are a group of compounds that are not considered essential nutrients in the diet but that may convey significant health benefits.

7

To reduce their risk for many chronic diseases, Americans should limit their intakes of

Solid Fats

8

As part of her renewed focus on diet and health, Lisa is trying to eat more vegetables. She doesn’t really like raw vegetables, so she has decided to add one cooked vegetable to her daily diet. She should be careful not to overcook her vegetables, because ________ are easily destroyed during cooking.

Water-Soluble Vitamins

9

Lisa is trying to choose more low-fat foods in order to reduce her risk for cardiovascular disease. One low-fat cookie that she sees advertised in the grocery store has 22 grams of carbohydrate, 2 grams of protein, and 1 gram of fat per cookie. How many kilocalories are in one of these low-fat cookies?

105 kcal per cookie
How:
Carbohydrate has 4 kcal/g, protein has 4 kcal/g, and fat has 9 kcal/g. For this cookie:

22 g carbohydrate X 4 kcal/g = 88 kcal from carbohydrate
2 g of protein X 4 kcal/g = 8 kcal from protein
1 g of fat X 9 kcal/g = 9 kcal from fat
Total kcal per cookie = 105 kcal per cookie

10

Which of the following is not a class of essential nutrients?

Alcohol

11

Nutrition is

the science that links food to health and disease

12

The "Freshman 15" is the term used to describe the

Amount of weight (in pounds) typically gained during freshman year of college.

13

The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the National Academy of Sciences advocates that 10% to 35% of calories come from protein and ________________ from carbohydrate.

45% to 65%

14

Minerals are structurally simple, inorganic substances that exist as groups of one or more of the same atoms. In chemistry, what does "inorganic" mean?

For the most part, the substance does not contain carbon.

15

Fibers belong to the class of nutrients known as

Carbohydrates.

16

Which of the following are major contributors of empty calories in American diets?

Fat- Free Milk
Sugar- sweetened beverages

17

Kellen is on the cross-country team at his college. His coach had a dietitian speak to the team about nutrition for optimal performance. One of the topics she covered was phytochemicals - substances that provide significant health benefits. What is the best way to obtain the potential benefits of phytochemicals?

Eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grain breads and cereals.

18

Which statement best describes the healthful diet principle of moderation?

Pay attention to portion size and plan your entire day's diet so that you don't overconsume nutrient sources.

19

According to MyPlate, how much do you need from the Protein Foods group when consuming a 2,000-calorie diet?

5 1/2 ounce-equivalents every day

20

EER refers to

Estimated calorie needs for the average person of a specific height, weight, age, gender, and physical activity pattern.

21

Ann Miles, a triathlete, wants to eat a health-promoting diet and achieve dietary adequacy. Which of the following behaviors exemplifies the concept of dietary moderation?

Plan to eat something relatively low in fat and sodium for dinner if she had a breakfast that was high in fat and sodium.

22

Overnutrition can be just as dangerous to the body as undernutrition. Developing nations tend to suffer from undernutrition, although many developing populations are increasingly becoming overnourished. In the developed world, the most common type of overnutrition is

Excessive calorie intake.

23

The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid developed by Oldways patterns dietary data from parts of the Mediterranean region that enjoy low levels of chronic disease and high adult life expectancy. All of the following are recommendations of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid EXCEPT

Eat fish and seafood at least once per day.

24

Which of the following is true about the way we should eat to achieve good nutritional status?

Eat a wide variety of foods because no single natural food meets all human nutrient needs.

25

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend which of the following?

Consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grains.

26

According to MyPlate, consumption of foods from the Grains group should include

At least half of the grain servings as whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta every day.

27

The digestive system not only processes the foods we eat but it is also the site of some nutrient production. Which two nutrients are produced by bacteria that live in the large intestine?

Vitamin K & biotin

28

The digestive system not only processes the foods we eat but it is also the site of some nutrient production. Which two nutrients are produced by bacteria that live in the large intestine?

Vitamin K & biotin

29

Blood leaves the heart via the

Arteries

30

Arteries branch into a network of tiny blood vessels called

Capillaries

31

The blood vessels that carry blood to the heart are the

Veins

32

Linda has heard that the acidic environment of the stomach is similar to that of a car battery. If the stomach is so acidic, why doesn’t the acid eat away at the stomach lining and cause holes in the stomach?

The stomach is lined with a layer of mucus that protects it.

33

Linda has been experiencing some problems with bowel regularity. She saw a commercial for a yogurt with added probiotics that claims to aid with digestion and alleviate bowel problems. What is a probiotic?

A probiotic contains specific types of bacteria that are intended to colonize the large intestine and thereby improve intestinal tract health.

34

One of Linda’s work colleagues has organized a blood and plasma drive at the office and is inviting co-workers to participate. Linda’s boss asks, “I don’t mind giving blood, but what is plasma?” What is plasma?

Plasma is the fluid, extracellular portion of the circulating blood that contains blood serum and all blood-clotting factors.

35

One of Linda’s work colleagues has organized a blood and plasma drive at the office and is inviting co-workers to participate. Linda’s boss asks, “I don’t mind giving blood, but what is plasma?” What is plasma?

Plasma is the fluid, extracellular portion of the circulating blood that contains blood serum and all blood-clotting factors.

36

If a diet does not provide adequate carbohydrate to meet immediate energy needs, the body compensates by altering its metabolism of other nutrients. Insufficient dietary carbohydrate can lead to elevated levels of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are the byproducts of partial breakdown of

Fat

37

Because animals store glycogen in their muscles, meat, fish, and poultry are good sources of carbohydrates.

False

38

Mary’s seven-year-old daughter was recently diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and research indicates that Mary should not feed her daughter any refined sugar products because sugar intake causes hyperactivity in children.

False

39

After eating a meal, blood sugar levels

Increase

40

Insulin, released after a meal is eaten by a person who does not have diabetes, will cause blood sugar levels to

Return to about normal

41

In type 1 diabetes, blood sugar levels remain high after a meal because

No insulin is released

42

In early stages of type 2 diabetes, blood sugar levels remain high after a meal because

Muscle and liver cells do not respond to insulin

43

The treatment for type 1 diabetes always includes

Insulin

44

Insulin

Allows cells to take in glucose

45

Individuals with type 1 diabetes

Do not PRODUCE insulin

46

Individuals with type 2 diabetes

Do not RESPOND to insulin

47

Type 1 diabetes in obese patients can be treated with metformin.

False

48

Type 2 diabetes can be treated with injection of insulin.

True

49

Type 2 diabetes can be treated with injection of insulin.

True

50

After eating a meal, blood sugar levels

Increase

51

How often can a sucrase molecule be used to hydrolyze sucrose?

Many times

52

Blood sugar refers to what molecule circulating in blood?

Glucose

53

Regina is a 22-year-old college student who plays on the soccer team. Her coach brought in a registered dietitian to talk about sports nutrition. The RD recommended minimizing trans fatty acids from processed and packaged foods, but she explained that some trans fats do occur naturally. What foods have naturally-occurring trans fatty acids?

Beef, milk and butter

54

Regina’s sister is pregnant and asks her about the safety of consuming fish during pregnancy. Regina remembers learning that some fish are higher in mercury than are others. Which of the following most likely has the highest mercury concentration?

Albacore tuna

55

Regina’s sister is pregnant and asks her about the safety of consuming fish during pregnancy. Regina remembers learning that some fish are higher in mercury than are others. Which of the following most likely has the highest mercury concentration?

Albacore tuna

56

Regina’s pregnant sister is interested in boosting her intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two essential fatty acids that can be made from alpha-linolenic (omega-3) acid. She has heard that EPA and DHA are important for cancer prevention, brain health, cardiovascular disease prevention, and immune function. Which food is the best source of EPA + DHA?

Fatty fish

57

As part of a nutrition class project, Regina is following Dr. Dean Ornish’s purely vegetarian (vegan) diet plan for one month. Her diet has less than 20% of calories from fat and uses only small amounts of vegetable oil in cooking and those naturally present in plant foods. If she were at risk for cardiovascular disease and if she continued on this diet, what is one expected outcome that may be attributable to the diet’s high carbohydrate content?

Increase in triglycerides

58

Regina is trying to cut back on her fat intake to help reduce total calorie intake and promote gradual weight loss. If she follows an 1,800-calorie meal plan and wants to achieve the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range recommendation of total fat being between 20-35% of calories, how many grams of fat per day should she be eating?

40-70 grams of fat per day

59

Cardiologists and other healthcare professionals recommend that people who are at elevated risk for developing cardiovascular disease adopt an “anti-atherosclerotic” lifestyle to help prevent atherosclerosis. Which of the following is a component of an anti-atherosclerotic lifestyle?

Smoking cessation
Diet low in saturated fat and trans fat
Consumption of fruits and vegetables high in antioxidants

60

Trans fatty acids occur naturally in some foods and are added to other manufactured foods. All of the statements about trans fats are true EXCEPT

A trans fat-free food will never have partially hydrogenated oil listed in its ingredient list.

61

Eating a diet high in trans fatty acids has been shown to increase circulating levels of LDL. Why do food manufacturers use trans fatty acids like partially-hydrogenated vegetable oils in packaged and processed foods?

Trans fatty acids increase a food’s shelf life.

62

Lipids are a unique nutrient group, differing significantly from carbohydrates and proteins. All of the following are correct statements about lipids EXCEPT

Phospholipids are the most abundant type of lipids found in the body and in foods

63

Which lipid is the primary source of dietary fat in our diets?

Triglycerides

64

Which lipid is the primary source of dietary fat in our diets?

Triglycerides

65

Regina’s food science class instructor assigned her to create a high-fat cake that will not go rancid as quickly as a standard high-fat cake. Which ingredient might she add to her recipe to prevent rancidity, and why?

She should add an antioxidant.

66

Regina’s food science class instructor assigned her to create a high-fat cake that will not go rancid as quickly as a standard high-fat cake. Which ingredient might she add to her recipe to prevent rancidity, and why?

She should add an antioxidant.

67

The basic building block of a protein is called a(n)

Amino acid.

68

The best estimate for the amount of protein required for nearly all adults is _______________ g/kg/day.

0.8

69

A vegetarian diet differs from a traditional animal-based diet in that a vegetarian diet is

Higher in dietary fiber than a traditional animal-based diet is.

70

The combination of plant foods that most often is used to provide complete protein is

Legumes and grains.

71

An essential amino acid

Cannot be synthesized in the body in sufficient quantity to meet body needs.

72

If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?

Protein synthesis will be limited.

73

Which of the following is a food that provides all of the essential amino acids?

Milk

74

Treating a protein with acid, heat, or agitation will cause _______________, meaning that the three-dimensional structure of the protein has been altered.

Denaturation

75

Treating a protein with acid, heat, or agitation will cause _______________, meaning that the three-dimensional structure of the protein has been altered.

Denaturation

76

Proteins are digested in which areas of the body?

Stomach and small intestine

77

Tomas is babysitting his neighbor’s seven-month-old child who has just begun to eat solid foods. The parents did not mention any food allergies, but Tomas would rather be safe than sorry. Which food is the safest option for Tomas to offer the baby if he wants to minimize any potential problems with food allergies?

Cereal made with rice and water

78

If a food does not contain the necessary amounts of a certain amino acid to meet a body need, that amino acid is referred to as a(n)

Limiting amino acid.

79

If Tomas is a healthy 24-year-old male who weighs 166 pounds, how many grams of protein per day should he have to promote protein equilibrium? (One kilogram = 2.2 pounds.)

60 grams of protein per day
how:
166 lb ÷ 2.2 lb/kg = 75.5 kg
75.5 kg × 0.8 g/kg = 60 grams of protein per day

80

Which of the following is not true about an incomplete protein source?

Lower quantities of this source could be eaten to get adequate quantities of essential amino acids.

81

All of the following statements about the role of protein in the body are correct EXCEPT

Protein is the only macronutrient that is not energy yielding

82

When a person eats more protein than his body needs, the extra protein is

Converted to glucose or fat

83

When protein is converted to glucose or fat, how is nitrogen eliminated from the body?

Through the kidneys

84

If a 180-pound man eats an adequate, 2200-kcal diet with 15% of kcal from protein, about how much of that protein will be used to build muscles?

50%

85

Increasing protein from 15% of calories to 30% of calories allows more protein to be used for

Energy

86

Excess dietary protein and amino acids

Do not build muscle

87

When individuals lose weight quickly, most of the weight lost is from

Water, glycogen, and muscle tissue

88

Bill consumes 2,500 kilocalories per day. What would be his energy expenditure, in kilocalories, from the thermic effect of food?

125 to 250

89

Lawrence is learning that energy imbalance leads to weight fluctuations. When does weight gain occur?

Weight gain occurs when caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure

90

Which of the following is true about basal metabolism?

It represents about 60 percent to 70 percent of total calories used by a sedentary person during each day

91

For a woman who is 1.63 meters tall and weighs 72 kilograms, the body mass index would be

27

92

A daily deficit of 500 kilocalories should result in a weight loss of about how many pounds per week?

1

93

A reality television show tracks the weight-loss progress of a number of morbidly obese people. What is the definition of morbidly obese?

Morbidly obese describes a person with a BMI greater than or equal to 40 or who is more than 100 pounds over a healthy body weight

94

The thermic effect of food

Represents the calories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food

95

John weighs 80 kilograms and is 1.6 meters tall. His body mass index is _______________ kg/m2.

31

96

Physical activity

Includes daily activities as seemingly insignificant as fidgeting

97

Despite advertisements and fad diet promises, there is no quick solution to being overweight. Successful weight loss comes from hard work and commitment. The most reliable approach to weight loss includes all of the following EXCEPT

Increased dietary supplement use

98

Although the Body Mass Index (BMI) is at times useful for determining healthy weight, it is not a perfect measurement because it fails to account for many other factors that affect health and weight. The BMI fails to take into account all of the following EXCEPT

Height

99

The calorie cost of the thermic effect of food is ___ of energy consumed.

5% to 10%

100

Lawrence notices that most of his body fat is accumulated around his mid-section. His dietitian calls this “upper-body obesity” or “android obesity.” The dietitian explains that this body fat distribution is more dangerous from a health standpoint than having fat accumulated around the lower portion of his body. Why is upper-body or android obesity more dangerous than lower-body or gynoid obesity?

Fat from abdominal fat cells goes directly to the liver; this disrupts the liver’s ability to use insulin and increases hepatic production of lipoproteins.

101

Restricting food and beverage intake by ______ kcal per day below calorie needs typically leads to weight loss of 1 pound per week.

500

102

Margaret's parents are both obese. She has dieted six times, each time losing a considerable amount of weight and subsequently regaining it. Margaret has an aversion to exercise. Which of the following is true about Margaret's situation?

When she ends the diet she regains additional body fat.

103

Margaret's parents are both obese. She has dieted six times, each time losing a considerable amount of weight and subsequently regaining it. Margaret has an aversion to exercise. Which of the following is true about Margaret's situation?

When she ends the diet she regains additional body fat.

104

The Upper Level for vitamin E is 1000 mg per day of supplemental alpha-tocopherol. Which of the following is an outcome of vitamin E toxicity?

Hemorrhage

105

The best way to improve the body's defense against free radicals is to

Consume plenty of fruits and vegetables.

106

For cancer prevention, which of the following dietary components should be limited?

Cured meats

107

Vitamin E is thought to be helpful in the prevention of heart disease because it

Prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol.

108

Which of the following describes the antioxidant activity of selenium?

Selenium is required for the activity of glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme that chemically converts peroxides into water.

109

Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

110

Replacing animal fats with plant oils in the diet would not only cut saturated fat intake, but would also increase

Vitamin E intake (Alpha tocopherol)

111

Which of the following population groups has increased vitamin C requirements?

Smokers

112

The consensus among the scientific community regarding megadose supplementation of vitamin E is

It is premature to recommend vitamin E supplements to the general population for prevention of diseases linked to oxidative damage, based on the failure of large clinical trials to show any consistent benefit of vitamin E supplementation.

113

When a molecule loses an electron in a chemical reaction, the molecule has been

Oxidized

114

Free radicals

Are generated by normal metabolic processes.

115

Free radicals

Are generated by normal metabolic processes.

116

Vitamin C enhances the absorption of

Iron

117

Free radical damage has been implicated in increasing the risk of

Atherosclerosis.

118

Which of the following are true of phytochemicals?

Phytochemical's are health-promoting compounds found in plant foods.
Phytochemical's cannot be synthesized in the body.

119

Deficiency symptoms of pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin, bleeding gums, and joint pain are related to the role of vitamin C in

Collagen synthesis.

120

Which of the following vitamins serves as an antioxidant in cell membranes?

Vitamin E (Alphatocopherol)

121

All of the following population groups are at risk for vitamin E deficiency EXCEPT:

People with high-fat diets.

122

All of the following population groups are at risk for vitamin E deficiency EXCEPT:

People with high-fat diets.

123

Formation and maintenance of collagen requires

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

124

Vitamin C intake over 2 grams per day may cause

Diarrhea

125

Which of the following food combinations would provide the most phosphorus?

Cheeseburger on whole-wheat bun, cola

126

How does phosphorus contribute to bone health?

Phosphorus is a component of hydroxyapatite crystals, which lend strength to bones and teeth.

127

The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is

Diary

128

A good indicator of bone health is

Bone Mineral Density

129

______ is a building block of vitamin D and other hormones.

Cholesterol

130

Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because

It can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun.

131

Although moderate weight-bearing exercise has a positive effect on the development and maintenance of bone mass, excessive exercise can be detrimental to bone health for women. Which of the following explains why excessive exercise can be detrimental to bone health?

Excessive exercise without sufficient energy intake can accelerate bone loss through insufficient estrogen levels.

132

The most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet is

Fortified Milk

133

Fat malabsorption may contribute to poor bone health because of impaired absorption of

Vitamin D

134

In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in

Bones and teeth

135

In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in

Bones and teeth

136

Vitamin D is unique in that it can be obtained by the diet but also is synthesized inside the body when a cholesterol-like substance is activated by sunlight and converted to the prohormone vitamin D. Which of the following organs participate in vitamin D synthesis as a result of sunlight exposure?

Skin
Liver
Kidneys

137

To prevent bone loss, a woman at risk for osteoporosis could

Consult a physician about estrogen replacement.
Increase weight-bearing exercise.
Increase dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D.

138

The ability of the skin to synthesize vitamin D is decreased by

Use of sunscreen.

139

All of the following are true about teeth, except

They are not actually bone

140

Bones in the legs, arms, spine and pelvis grow

At different rates

141

Which of the following is not considered a weight bearing activity?

Swimming

142

At which of the following ages would calcium loss from bone be more than calcium deposits into bone, even when a high calcium diet is eaten?

50 yrs old

143

Which mineral is most important throughout life to assist in maintaining strong bone?

Calcium (Ca)

144

Which mineral is most important throughout life to assist in maintaining strong bone?

Calcium (Ca)

145

A pantothenic acid deficiency

Is very unlikely because of its widespread availability.

146

Iodide is a trace mineral necessary for thyroid function. Possible consequences of iodide deficiency include which of the following?

Goiter
Delayed intellectual development
Stunted growth

147

The best vitamin B-6 food sources include

Meat, fish, and poultry.

148

People who eat large amounts of seaweed can consume toxic levels of which trace mineral?

Iodine (I)

149

Soybeans, egg yolks, meats, and lecithin are sources of ______.

Choline

150

What disease is caused by a thiamin (B1) deficiency?

Beriberi

151

______ is unique among the B vitamins because bacterial synthesis of the vitamin contributes to meeting human needs.

Biotin (B7)

152

Because B vitamins are ___________________, very little is stored and excess ends up in the urine or stool.

Water soluble

153

A deficiency of ____________________________ results in impaired glucose tolerance and elevated blood cholesterol.

Chromium (Cr)

154

Taking megadose supplements of vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine) can lead to

Nerve Damage

155

A major source of iodide in the North American diet is

Table salt

156

A niacin (B3) deficiency causes the disease _______________.

Pellagra

157

A ________________ is an organic compound that aids enzyme function by combining with an inactive enzyme to form a catalytically active form.

Coenzyme

158

Which B vitamin is found in egg yolk (and other foods) and functions as part of Coenzyme A?

Pantothenic acid (B5)