Exam 1-4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1-4 Deck (48):


-lack of energy, protein, and one or more essential nutrients
-leads to sickness, disease, and death


over nourished

-too much energy(calories) or one or more essential nutrients
-can lead to sickness, disease, obesity, and death


What is nutrition?

the science of food and how food nourishes our bodies and influences our health


What are nutrients?

-chemicals found in foods that are critical to human growth
-both essential and non-essential nutrients


essential nutrients

-nutrients that we have to eat because our bodies cannot make them
-without these our body becomes undernourished
-macronutrients vs. micronutrients


non-essential nutrients

those nutrients that can be made by the body; they may often also be absorbed from consumed food.


What's the difference between an essential and non-essential nutrient?

Non-essential: the body can make the nutrient from other nutrients
Essential: Must come from diet and can't be made from other nutrients


What is the purpose of the Daily Reference Intakes (DRI)?

specific nutrient recommendations to prevent chronic diseases, daily recommendations for vitamins and minerals based on age and gender, meant for healthy population, aim for Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), do not exceed the Upper Limit (UL)


Name the 6 classes of nutrients

1. Carbohydrate
2. Lipids (Fats and Oils)
3. Protein
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water



composed of C,H,O
major source of fuel for central nervous system and muscles during exercise
classified as either simple or complex
4 cal/g


Lipids (fats and oils)

Composed of C,H, and few O
triglyceride is the major form of lipid
4 categories: Saturated fats, trans fat, monounsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats (essential)
9 cal/g



Composed of C, H, O and N
makes up bones, muscles, other tissues
basic unit is amino acid: 9 essential amino acids and 11 nonessential amino acids
4 cal/g



Composed of various elements
vital to life, participate in metabolic pathways
2 categories: fat soluble and water soluble
needed in tiny amounts, no calories



some contribute to body structure (Ca)
2 categories: Trace minerals (need <100 mg)
needed in tiny amounts, no calories



solvent, lubricant, medium for transport, chemical processes, and temperature regulator
makes up majority of body (60%)
yields no calories



1. Carbohydrate
2. Lipids (Fats and Oils)
3. Protein



1. Vitamins
2. Minerals


Vitamin Categories

Fat soluble and water soluble


Mineral Categories

trace minerals and major minerals


Calculate the total calories from a food when given the amount of carbohydrate, protein and fat.


CHO: 15g x 4 kcal/g = 60 kcal
PRO: 3g x 4 kcal/g = 12 kcal
FAT: 1g x 9 kcal/g = 9 kcal
TOTAL: 81 kcal, rounded down to 80


A 24 hour diet recall reveals that 400 grams of carbs, 70 grams of fat and 68 grams of protein were consumed. How many total calories would that be and what % of calories came from carbs, fat and protein (bases on 2,502 cal diet)?

carbs-1600, 64%
fat-630, 26%
protein-272, 11%


How does the DSHEA classify nutritional supplements? What role does the FDA have in regulating supplements?

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) classifies nutritional supplements by saying vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and herbal remedies are "food"
FDA cannot regulate "food" as heavily as additives and drugs



epidemiology the study of diseases in populations. has three types of studies: cross sectional, case control, and cohort


What are the 3 components of a healthy diet

appropriate calories, appropriate eating schedule, and balanced diet


what are the rules for combining balance and moderation?

making choices from all 5 groups and choosing the more nutrient dense most of the time, understanding the recommended portions


nutrient density

comparison of vitamin and mineral content to number of kcals, food that has a smaller number of calories but contains many vitamins and minerals would be nutrient dense


Empty calories

provides kcals and few to no other nutrients and isnt filling, usually mostly sugar/fat, doesn't have to be completely sugar and fat free, high calorie food also called energy dense


what are 3 tools the government provides to help guide healthy eating?

1. dietary guidelines-advice as to what USA should eat, info used for myplate guidelines (ex-school lunches), re-issued every 5 years
2. food labels
3. my healthy plate


what nutrients are required to be listed on the food label, including the 2 vitamins and 2 minerals

fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, CHO, fiber, sodium, and potassium.
vitamins-A and C
minerals- Ca and Fe


in what order are the ingredients listed on food packaging?

descending order by weight


list the 5 myplate food groups

fruits, grains, vegetables, protein, and dairy



choose whole grains, corn, beans, peas
correct portion is 1 slice bread, 1/2 cup cooked rice/pasta/cereal, 6-9 serving/day
nutrients common are carbs, folate, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, Fe, Mg, and fiber



choose fresh or frozen
3-5 servings/day, 1 medium sized fruit, 1 cup fruit/juice, 1/2 cup dried fruit
nutrients common are carbs, vitamin c and a, K, and fiber



choose fresh or frozen (emphasis on brightly colored veggies)
at least 3/day, 1 cup raw/cooked/juice, 2 cups leafy greens
nutrients common are vitamin c and a, folate, Mg, K, and fiber



choose skim or 1% milk/cottage cheese, no fat yogurt (creamy)
3-4 servings/day, 1 cup milk/yogurt/cottage cheese/ice cream, 1 slice cheese
nutrients common are protein, Ca, Mg, riboflavin, vitamins B12 and vitamins A and D when fortified



choose lean meat/poultry, fish,tofu, nuts, beans, and seeds
5-7n oz/day, 1 oz meat, 1 egg, 1/4 cup beans, 1 tbs PB,
nutrients common are protein, Fe, Zn, niacin, thiamn, B6,B12, Mg, K


which hormones are responsible for lowering and raising blood glucose levels?



Type 1 Diabetes

Genetic link, typically diagnosed at under 30, possibly caused by an autoimmune disorder causing beta cell destruction leading to absolute insulin deficiency, insulin injections are required and CHO counting and exercise


Type 2 Diabetes

90-95% of all cases, non-insulin dependent to start, defective insulin to compensate and leads to beat cells failure, treat by meds/weight loss/exercise


what are the potential long term complications of diabetes?

Damage to the arteries in kidneys, eyes, nerves (particularly in feet and lower legs), increased chance of clogged arteries, poor circulation which leads to poor would healing (severe foot sores and gangrene can result in amputations)


What is the glycemic index? Describe the relationship between a high glycemic index food, blood sugars and insulin levels.

Glycemic index is a measure of how quickly blood sugar levelys (glucose in blood) rises after eating a particular type of food. Glycemic index is based on the idea that carb based foods digesting into glucose quickly isn't healthy. This results in temp high levels of glucose in bloodstream which causes the pancreas to release large amounts of insulin. Insulin's job is to lower blood sugars


Identify the various types of foods that are considered carbohydrates.

Grains, Cereals, pasta, potatoes, rice, beans, sweets, regular sodas, fruits/fruit juices, fiber and high fiber foods like lettuce and other salad veggies.


List the Monosaccharides

Glucose, fructose, galactose


Which organ do the monosaccharides travel to after they enter the blood?



Name the disaccharides and which mono's make up the disaccharides

Maltose (Glucose + Glucose)
Sucrose (Glucose + Fructose)
Lactose (Galactose + Glucose)


Name the 3 forms of complex carbohydrates.

Oligosaccharides- raffinose & stachyose - found in beans and legumes, not digested very well in small intestine, digested by bacteria in large instine
Polysarrcharides- starch & glycogen
Dietary Fiber- soluble and insoluble


What are amylose and amylopectin? Which is used as a thickener in foods?

2 kinds of starch. Amylose is a straight chain polymer. Amylopectin is a highly branched polymer often used as a food thickener (shown as modified starch in ingredients list)


What's the difference between glycogen and starch? Name the 2 places the body stores glycogen?

Starch contains 3,000 or more glucose molecules bound together and doesn't contain any of the other monosaccharaides, the structure is a either occasionally branched (amylopectin) or unbranched chains (amylose). Glycogen has a very branched structure that allows for more end sites for enzyme action and quicker availability of individual glucose molecules, it is stored in the liver and muscles.