Exam #4: Anus & Rectum Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #4: Anus & Rectum Deck (17):
1

What diseases is melena a sign of?

Upper source: GERD, peptic ulcer, gastritis

*Note that melena is "sticky"

2

What are the diseases the are associated with hematochezia?

Lower source: colon rectum or anus

- Colon cancer, polyps, diverticula, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, inflammatory conditions of the colon and rectum

3

List some epidemiologist statistics related to prostate cancer.

- Leading male cancer diagnosis
- Second leading cause of death in men (to heart disease)
- Risk increases after 50
- Risk is higher in African American males

If you biopsy a male's prostate after 50, their age in years is the equal to the probability that you find abnormal cells

4

What are the three requirements for effective screening?

1) Patient need to be at some RISK
2) Asymptomatic
3) Effective interventions must exist

5

Is it recommended to generally screen for prostate disease?

NO--screening is grade "D" i.e. DO NOT screen

6

When is screening for prostate disease indicated? What method is recommended?

Starting at age 45 for risk based i.e:
- African American
- Father or brother with prostate cancer before 65

*PSA (antigen testing) is not recommended-->DRE

7

What tumors does DRE detect well?

Tumors on the posterior & lateral aspects of the prostate; these are the tumors that can be reached

*There is a LOW SENSITIVITY to testing-->you'll miss 40% of tumors

8

When is colorectal screening recommended?

Starting at 50 years in both sexes
- Colonoscopy Q10 years

9

What are the signs of acute bacterial prostatitis?

Dysuria
Frequency
Nocturia (new)
Hesitancy
Subrapubic pain
Painful ejaculation
Flu-like symptoms

*with increased WBC count

10

What are the signs and symptoms of BPH?

Same as acute bacterial prostatitis but WITHOUT inflammation

11

Is PSA useful after you have done DRE?

NO

12

What is the differentiating factor between BPH & prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is associated with asymmetric enlargement of the prostate vs. BPH that is symmetrical

13

What is an anal fissure?

Tear in the skin of the anus
- acute
- small blood

Caused by straining & constipation

14

What is an anal fistula?

Infected anal gland above the dentate line that becomes a chronic draining abscess
- Bypasses the external sphincter and can lead to stool leakage

15

What is the difference between internal & external hemorrhoids?

External hurt (below dentate line)

16

What is a rectal prolapse?

A protruding mass from the anus that can initially be reduced

17

What are polyps?

Intestinal growths