Exam 4: Dr. King Large Animal Vaccines Flashcards Preview

Immunology - DVM year 1 > Exam 4: Dr. King Large Animal Vaccines > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 4: Dr. King Large Animal Vaccines Deck (47):
1

What are herd health components?

Biosecurity
Management
Vaccination program

2

What is biosecurity?

Measures that you take on your farm to limit exposure to disease

3

What are methods of biosecurity?

Quarantine
Testing and culling
Introduction of new genetics from known/safe sources

4

What are factors that influence a vaccination program?

Economics
Location (exposure)
Management

5

What are the crucial aspects of vaccine use?

Correct administration
Quality assurance
Following the instructions
Timing is more important than the product

6

Describe cattle vaccines

Follow BQA guidelines
Split the vaccine on each side of the animal
Use SubQ routes over IM
Use lower dose vaccine products
Watch what products you give on the same side of the neck
MLV products go low

7

Describe killed vaccines

Relatively stable
Require adjuvant
Stimulate humoral response
Booster response
Good protection for extracellular pathogens

8

What does stimulation of the humoral response by killed vaccines do?

Antibody production
7-10 days for first response

9

What does the booster response with killed vaccines do?

Faster and longer lasting
3-6 weeks follow label

10

Describe modified live vaccines

Require careful handling
Rapid long lasting protection
Stimulate cell mediated immunity (T lymphocytes)
Better for intracellular pathogens
Booster not necessarily required

11

What is the response time of MLVs?

3-5 days

12

How should vaccines be handled?

Keep refrigerated
Change needles frequently (10-15 head)
Change needles before refilling syringe

13

Why do MLVs need special handling?

They are sensitive to UV light, temperature, and disinfectants
Viable 60 minutes when mixed

14

What are vaccine failures?

Perception of failure
Problem with vaccines
How given/administered
Host did not respond properly

15

What is the perception of failure?

Disease was incubating, misdiagnosis, no time for an protective immune response to occur

16

What could be a problem with the vaccine?

Improper handeling

17

Why would a host not response properly to a vaccine?

Maternal antibody blockage
Immune suppression (age, stress, parasitism)

18

What are the vaccine levels?

Prevention of infection (most effective)
Prevention of disease
Aid in disease prevention (most common)
Aid in disease control

19

What is the prevention of infection label?

Products able to prevent all colonization or replication of the challenge organism in vaccinated and challenged animals

20

What is the prevention of disease label?

Products shown to be highly effective in preventing clinical disease in vaccinated and challenged animals

21

What is the aid in disease prevention label?

Prevent disease in vaccinated and challenged animals by a clinically significant amount which ma be less than that required to support a claim of disease prevention

22

What is the aid in disease control label?

Products that have been shown to alleviate disease severity, reduce disease duration, or delay disease onset

23

What are vaccine trials used in?

Only healthy animals

24

Describe vaccination programs/protocols

Different for different farms
Management schemes
Different for stage of production
Duration of immunity
Economics

25

Describe the 7 or 8 way clostridial cattle vaccine

Killed vaccine
Cows and calves
Clostridial myonecrosis
Blackleg and malignant edema
Requires booster

26

Describe the 5 way viral respiratory cattle vaccine

Killed and MLV products available
Respiratory disease and pregnancy wastage
Careful in naive animals
Can cause disease

27

Why must you be careful with naive animals when giving a 5 way modified vaccines?

Follicular necrosis and inflammation or ovary
Reduced fertility

28

Describe 5 way leptospirosis cattle vaccine

Campylobacter
Infertility and pregnancy wastage
Killed products
Duration of immunity short lived
Separate or combinations

29

What makes up the beef industry?

Cow-calf producer
Stocker
Feedlot

30

Describe cow-calf producer

Herd of brood cows
Goals is 1 calf per cow every 12 months
Gestation 283 days
Wean calves at 6-8 months
Calves are sold to stocker operation
Reproduction is key to the cow-calf producer's income

31

In cow-calf operations, what should be done prebreeding?

Cows should be given 5 way MLV respiratory and leapt with campylobacter
Calves should be castrated and tagged

32

In cow-calf operations, what should be done preweaning (4-6 weaks before weaning)?

Initial calf vaccines of 5 way MLV respiratory vaccine and clostridial vaccine

33

In cow-calf operations, what should be done at weaning?

Cows should be give 5 way MLV or killed, clostridial vaccine, and leapt
Calves should get booster vaccines

34

Describe herds without a calving season (problems and when to vaccinate)

Hard to intervene
Cattle at different stages of production
Open and pregnant cattle
Vaccine twice yearly with killed products

35

Describe backgrounder/stocker operation

Buys calves 300-700 lbs. from auction or producer
Develops forage or grain
Sells groups of calves to feedlots

36

What are problems with backgrounder/stocker operations?

Calves under stress
Commingling at the market
Unknown vaccine status/health program
Recently weaned
High disease morbidity (shipping fever)
Typically vaccinated on arrival

37

What are calves vaccinated with when they arrive at stocker operations?

5 way MLV respiratory
Clostridial vaccines
Booster in 4-6 weeks

38

What are the core equine vaccines?

Eastern/western equine encephalitis
West Nile virus
Tetanus
Rabies

39

What do you avoid when giving a horse an injection?

Tuber ischii
Ligamentum nuchae
Cervical vertebrae

40

How often should horses be immunized for tetanus?

Annually

41

What does encephalomyelitis include?

Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus
Western equine encephalomyelitis virus
West Nile Virus

42

What is encephalomyelitis?

Uniform inflammation of the spinal cord and brain

43

What can encephalomyelitis lead to?

Ataxia
Depression
Tremors
Seizures

44

Describe the eastern and western encephalomyelitis vaccines

Only killed vaccines are currently available
Must vaccinate at least twice a year, the close to the coast you live you need to vaccinate 3 times a year

45

Describe the west nile virus vaccine

Vaccinate 1-2 times yearly recombinant vaccine (Recombitek by Merial)
Vaccinate 2-3 times yearly with killed products based on vector exposure

46

When should vaccines be timed in horses?

In accordance with peak mosquito activity in early spring and early fall

47

What is rabies?

An uncommon neurological disease that is 100% fatal
Transmissible from horses to humans
Killed products require no booster