Flashcards in Exam 4: Dr. King Large Animal Vaccines Deck (47):
What are herd health components?
What is biosecurity?
Measures that you take on your farm to limit exposure to disease
What are methods of biosecurity?
Testing and culling
Introduction of new genetics from known/safe sources
What are factors that influence a vaccination program?
What are the crucial aspects of vaccine use?
Following the instructions
Timing is more important than the product
Describe cattle vaccines
Follow BQA guidelines
Split the vaccine on each side of the animal
Use SubQ routes over IM
Use lower dose vaccine products
Watch what products you give on the same side of the neck
MLV products go low
Describe killed vaccines
Stimulate humoral response
Good protection for extracellular pathogens
What does stimulation of the humoral response by killed vaccines do?
7-10 days for first response
What does the booster response with killed vaccines do?
Faster and longer lasting
3-6 weeks follow label
Describe modified live vaccines
Require careful handling
Rapid long lasting protection
Stimulate cell mediated immunity (T lymphocytes)
Better for intracellular pathogens
Booster not necessarily required
What is the response time of MLVs?
How should vaccines be handled?
Change needles frequently (10-15 head)
Change needles before refilling syringe
Why do MLVs need special handling?
They are sensitive to UV light, temperature, and disinfectants
Viable 60 minutes when mixed
What are vaccine failures?
Perception of failure
Problem with vaccines
Host did not respond properly
What is the perception of failure?
Disease was incubating, misdiagnosis, no time for an protective immune response to occur
What could be a problem with the vaccine?
Why would a host not response properly to a vaccine?
Maternal antibody blockage
Immune suppression (age, stress, parasitism)
What are the vaccine levels?
Prevention of infection (most effective)
Prevention of disease
Aid in disease prevention (most common)
Aid in disease control
What is the prevention of infection label?
Products able to prevent all colonization or replication of the challenge organism in vaccinated and challenged animals
What is the prevention of disease label?
Products shown to be highly effective in preventing clinical disease in vaccinated and challenged animals
What is the aid in disease prevention label?
Prevent disease in vaccinated and challenged animals by a clinically significant amount which ma be less than that required to support a claim of disease prevention
What is the aid in disease control label?
Products that have been shown to alleviate disease severity, reduce disease duration, or delay disease onset
What are vaccine trials used in?
Only healthy animals
Describe vaccination programs/protocols
Different for different farms
Different for stage of production
Duration of immunity
Describe the 7 or 8 way clostridial cattle vaccine
Cows and calves
Blackleg and malignant edema
Describe the 5 way viral respiratory cattle vaccine
Killed and MLV products available
Respiratory disease and pregnancy wastage
Careful in naive animals
Can cause disease
Why must you be careful with naive animals when giving a 5 way modified vaccines?
Follicular necrosis and inflammation or ovary
Describe 5 way leptospirosis cattle vaccine
Infertility and pregnancy wastage
Duration of immunity short lived
Separate or combinations
What makes up the beef industry?
Describe cow-calf producer
Herd of brood cows
Goals is 1 calf per cow every 12 months
Gestation 283 days
Wean calves at 6-8 months
Calves are sold to stocker operation
Reproduction is key to the cow-calf producer's income
In cow-calf operations, what should be done prebreeding?
Cows should be given 5 way MLV respiratory and leapt with campylobacter
Calves should be castrated and tagged
In cow-calf operations, what should be done preweaning (4-6 weaks before weaning)?
Initial calf vaccines of 5 way MLV respiratory vaccine and clostridial vaccine
In cow-calf operations, what should be done at weaning?
Cows should be give 5 way MLV or killed, clostridial vaccine, and leapt
Calves should get booster vaccines
Describe herds without a calving season (problems and when to vaccinate)
Hard to intervene
Cattle at different stages of production
Open and pregnant cattle
Vaccine twice yearly with killed products
Describe backgrounder/stocker operation
Buys calves 300-700 lbs. from auction or producer
Develops forage or grain
Sells groups of calves to feedlots
What are problems with backgrounder/stocker operations?
Calves under stress
Commingling at the market
Unknown vaccine status/health program
High disease morbidity (shipping fever)
Typically vaccinated on arrival
What are calves vaccinated with when they arrive at stocker operations?
5 way MLV respiratory
Booster in 4-6 weeks
What are the core equine vaccines?
Eastern/western equine encephalitis
West Nile virus
What do you avoid when giving a horse an injection?
How often should horses be immunized for tetanus?
What does encephalomyelitis include?
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus
Western equine encephalomyelitis virus
West Nile Virus
What is encephalomyelitis?
Uniform inflammation of the spinal cord and brain
What can encephalomyelitis lead to?
Describe the eastern and western encephalomyelitis vaccines
Only killed vaccines are currently available
Must vaccinate at least twice a year, the close to the coast you live you need to vaccinate 3 times a year
Describe the west nile virus vaccine
Vaccinate 1-2 times yearly recombinant vaccine (Recombitek by Merial)
Vaccinate 2-3 times yearly with killed products based on vector exposure
When should vaccines be timed in horses?
In accordance with peak mosquito activity in early spring and early fall