Exam 5 4.20 Pulmonary.Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 5 4.20 Pulmonary.Part 2 Deck (23)
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Pic with info about COPD


Chart with COPD stages and FEV1 and FVC values


 Pulmonary Acidosis (3)

  • ˜Respiratory acidosis – when pulmonary ventilation ↓, CO2 ↑, which ↑hydrogen and carbonic acid
  • ˜Results in hypoxia
  • ˜Diaphoresis, shallow rapid breathing, restlessness, cyanosis, cardiac arrhythmias


When there is Too Much O2 Supplement

  • ˜Oxygen level in blood, rather than CO2, becomes primary driver of respiration
  • ˜May actually elevate CO2 and ↑ respiratory acidosis
  • ˜Oxygen dosage should be determined by arterial blood gases


Respiratory alkalosis 

  • ˜Respiratory alkalosis – ↑respiratory rate and depth (hyperventilation), CO2 ↓, which ↓ hydrogen and carbonic acid
  • ˜Need to slow down breathing, rebreathing mask or paper bag, pain control


List common pulmonary pathology and injury 

  • ˜Bronchiectasis 
  • ˜Occupational lung diseases
  • ˜Pulmonary embolism 
  • Cor pulmonale 
  • ˜Pulmonary artery hypertension 
  • Pleurisy
  • Pneumothorax 
  • ˜Hypercapnia 
  • ˜Hypoxia
  • Hypoxemia


Basic info about Bronchiectasis

˜progressive, obstructive condition, usually caused by repeated infections and irritants (smoking)


Basic S/S of Pulmonary embolism (5)

  • ˜dyspnea
  • pleuritic pain
  • persistent cough
  • hemoptysis
  • fever


Basic info on Cor pulmonale

˜R sided heart failure – cough, chest pain, peripheral edema, dyspnea, distention of neck veins, wheezing


Basic info about Pulmonary artery hypertension 

  • vasoconstriction
  • may be due to sleep apnea
  • emboli
  • may have no early symptoms
  • chest pain
  • dizziness
  • fatigue


Basic info about Pleurisy

˜inflammation of pleura, may be infection, post-op, injury


Basic info about Pneumothorax

˜free air in pleural cavity – post-op, scuba divers, can be spontaneous


What is Hypercapnia?


˜↑ CO2 retention


What is Hypoxia?

˜inadequate oxygenation at tissue level 


What is Hypoxemia?

  • ˜arterial O2 is below normal
  • May be caused by, among other reasons:
    • O2 delivery to lungs
    • Diffusion ability across alveoli and capillary
    • Perfusion of capillaries


Causes for Failed ventilation/perfusion

  • Acute Respiratory Failure
    • Post-op respiratory failure
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Aspiration
  • Atelectasis
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Bronchiolitis
  • Pleural abnormalities
    • Pneumothorax
    • Pleural effusion
    • Empyema- collection of pus in lung pleura
  • Chest wall restrictions
  • Flail chest



Things you may see with Chronic Bronchitis and Asthma

  • ˜FEV1 -decrease
  • ˜FEV1/FVC -decrease
  • ˜FVC- Same or lower
  • ˜Damage to endothelium of lung initiates inflammation
  • Cilia paralysis
  • Thick mucus production
  • Hypertrophy of mucus glands
  • Thickened basement membrane
  • Bronchospasm
  • Increased physiological dead space


What happens to the pulmonary system as we age? 

  • ˜Loss of elastic recoil
  • ˜Stiffening of the chest wall
  • ˜Alterations in gas exchange
  • ˜Increases in flow resistance
  • ˜Decreased exercise tolerance


General info about Pertussis

˜Whooping cough  - severe hacking cough and high-pitched wheeze

Highly contagious, preventable through vaccination


How does supplemental O2 work? 

˜Can be delivered through an oxygen concentrator, which converts room air into concentrated pure O2 for portable use


What is CPAP? 

  • ˜Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
  • ˜Delivers mild air pressure to keep airways open, used for sleep apnea
  • ˜humidified


What is BiPAP?

  • ˜Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure
  • ˜Delivers mild humidified air pressure to keep airways open, used for sleep apnea
  • One pressure for inhalation (ipap)
  • One pressure for exhalation (epap)
  • ˜May be better suited for more difficult patients with low O2, CHF, other lung disorders


Things Dr. T wanted us to review

  • G&S, p. 313-316
    • Guidelines for physician referral
    • Key points to remember