Exam 4 Wed 4.6. Kidneys.Part 3 Flashcards Preview

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Kidneys play a key role in the balance of what major functions   BA2RE

  • Blood pressure control(renin)
  • Activation of vitamin D and calcium balance
  • Acid-base balance
  • Red blood cells (EPO) formation
  • Electrolyte balance


So you have a Genitourinary Disease.

What are some possible constitutional symptoms you may have? (3) 

  1. Fever, chills
  2. Fatigue, malaise
  3. Anorexia, weight loss


So you have a Genitourinary Disease.

What are some possible Musculoskeletal symptoms you may have? (3) 

  1. Unilateral costovertebral tenderness
  2. Low back, flank, inner thigh, or leg pain
  3. Ipsilateral shoulder pain (will also see same side flank/back pain)


So you have a Genitourinary Disease.

What are some possible urinary symptoms you may have? (8) 

  1. Dysuria (pain, burning)
  2. Nocturia (up at night >1X)
  3. Feeling of bladder not emptying, or straining to start stream
  4. Hematuria
  5. Dribbling at end of urination
  6. ↑frequency of urination (>every 2 hours)
  7. Hesitancy in starting stream, or interruptions
  8. Proteinuria (makes urine foamy)


So you have a Genitourinary Disease.

What are some possible female specific symptoms you may have? (6) VD MAP

  1. Vaginal itching or discharge
  2. Dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation)
  3. Dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
  4. Menstrual pattern changes
  5. Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  6. Pelvic masses or lesions


So you have a Genitourinary Disease....and you're a man?

What are some possible male  symptoms you may have? (6) 


  1. Difficulty starting or continuing stream of urine
  2. Penile discharge
  3. Penis or Testicular pain
  4. Scrotal enlargement
  5. Swelling or mass in groin
  6. Sexual dysfunction


So you have a Genitourinary Disease.

What are some possible miscellaneous symptoms you may have? (2) 

  1. Skin hypersensitivity
  2. Infertility


What is benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH)?

  • an enlarged prostate gland .
  • The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body.
  • As the prostate gets bigger, it may squeeze or partly block the urethra.
  • This often causes problems with urinating.


Medications used to treat BPH

•Alpha blockers – terazosin (Hytrin) – symptom relief
•5-alpha reductase inhibitors – dutasteride (Avodart) or finasteride (Proscar) – reduce an enlarged prostate, may take 6 months or more to see results


Surgical treatments of BPH (4) 

  1. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
  2. Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP), incisions to relief pressure
  3. Transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT), partial ablation through heat
  4. Transurethral needle ablation (TUNA), heated needle ablation


How is prostate cancer diagnosed? 

  • Prostate biopsy only truly diagnostic procedure

  • Histological changes scored using 1-5 Gleason score based upon lack of differentiation in cells

  • Higher number, poorer prognosis


3 things to know about testicular cancer the pathology

  1. May be asymptomatic; most common finding is hard, painless, pea-sized lump
  2. Early detection is almost always curable
  3. Low chance of metastasis to other testicle if found early


S/S of testicular cancer (10)

  1. Lump in either testicle
  2. Any enlargement, swelling, hardness, pain, discomfort
  3. Significant ↓ in size of a testicle
  4. Feeling of heaviness in scrotum or lower abdomen
  5. Dull ache in lower abdomen or groin
  6. Sudden collection of fluid in scrotum
  7. Enlargement or tenderness in breasts
  8. Infertility
  9. Unexplained malaise or fatigue
  10. Low back pain (metastases to retroperitoneal lymph nodes