Exam 4 Wed.3.30.Kidneys Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4 Wed.3.30.Kidneys Deck (64)
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What is the Renal capsule?

  • surrounds each kidney
  • embedded in a mass of fat; protection from trauma


What is Renal fascia?

  • surrounds kidney and fat
  • attaches kidney to posterior abdominal wall; protection from trauma


*Dr.T emphasized how much it hold kidneys in place and how it may best be appreciated when watching a kidney being taken out of a body


What is Hilum?

  • central indentation where blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics and ureter enter and exit


What is the cortex?

  • outer region of kidney
  • contains glomeruli, most of proximal tubule and some distal tubule
  • not the salty region of the kidneys


What is the Medulla?

  • inner region of kidney
  • contains primarily pyramids, Loop of Henle, and collecting ducts 


What are the Pyramids?

contain loop of Henle and collecting ducts


What is the Calyx?


  • calices- plural form
  • chambers that receive urine from collecting ducts, forming entry into renal pelvis


What is the Lobe?

  • structural unit of the kidney
  • contains pyramid and overlying cortex ~ 14/kidney


Something to do if you're mega stressed out or maybe just need a mental break


Click Breathe, then timer, and then have a nice little moment of meditation 


What is the nephron? 

  • functional unit of kidney
  • 1.2 million per kidney


Tubular structures- What do they do (general)? List the structures (5)

Together function to form urine (end product) via secretion and absorption

–Renal corpuscle- glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule
–Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
–Loop of Henle (important in electrolyte and water balance)
–Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) 
–Collecting duct (for urine) 


What is a Glomerulus?

tuft of capillaries


What is Bowman’s capsule?

surrounds glomerular capillaries


Disadvantage to the "out hole" 

  • entry point for bacteria
  • Women have a shorter urethra than men making them more prone to bladder infections
  • 1/3 women get a UTI


Name two (sorta 3) chronic illnesses are highly dependent on kidney function

  • Diabetes and hypertension
  • Should include metabolic syndrome since it is teh precursor to diabetes 
  • rely on glucose and electrolyte regulation and balance


Number 1 function of the kidneys

maintain a stable internal environment- homeostasis


What happens to the old kidney with a kidney transplant?

  • Docs leave it where they found it. It's hooked into the aorta and inf. vena cava. 
  • Won't remove unless infected
  • The new kidney is hooked into inferior vessels near the ilium


Where are the kidneys? 

  • Tucked under rib cage and musculature for protection
  • If kidneys are aggravated, may send pain signals if tapped/palpated over costovertebral angle. 


Descriptive word for kidney pain 

Colicky (cramping and wave like pain) 


List kidney blood vessles in Dr. T's PP (10)

  1. Renal arteries
  2. Interlobar arteries
  3. Arcuate arteries
  4. Interlobular
  5. Afferent arteriole
  6. Glomerular capillaries
  7. Efferent arteriole
  8. Peritubular capillaries
  9. Vasa recta 
  10. Renal veins

*Bold were vessels emphasized in lecture. She was not as concerned about teh other vessels


Where do Renal arteries branch off from? 

abdominal aorta


Where are Interlobar arteries located?

travel down renal columns and between pyramids

*Not emphasized by Dr. T


Where are Arcuate arteries located? 

arch over pyramids in cortical medullary junction

*Not emphasized by Dr. T


What are Interlobular vessels connected to? 

afferent arteriole

*Not emphasized by Dr. T


What do Afferent arteriole do? 

controls blood flow into glomerulus


What do Glomerular capillaries do? 

  • form a filter
    • fist-like structure


What do Efferent arteriole do? 

carries blood minus filtrate out of glomerulus


Where are the Peritubular capillaries and what do they do? 

  • surround tubules and loop of Henle
  • involved in reabsorption and secretion

* Not emphasized by Dr. T


What is Vasa recta and what does it do? 

  • part of peritubular system
  • responsible for concentrating urine and blood supply to kidneys

*Not emphasized by Dr. T


What do Renal veins do? 

deliver filtered and reabsorbed blood to inferior vena cava